ACO Corporation USA Visitor’s Survey and Executive Business Plan

ACO Corp – Event Planning Marketing Plan
ACO and Ascension Center Corporate Organizers as Event & Retreat Professionals share this survey at all events, functions, expos, symposiums
ACO CORP EVENT SURVEY
1. Place of residence: City___________________________________________ State_______________
Zip Code_________ Country________________________________________ (if international)
2. Check one: □ First time to visit Hawaii □ First time to visit Kentucky
□ First time to visit Indiana □ First time to visit Illinois □ First time to visit Tri-State Region (IN,IL,KY)
□ First time to visit Arizona □First-time Visitor to the Mississippi Gulf Coast
□ Returning Visitor to the USA
3. Number people in your party: __________________
4. Length of stay: Days____________ Nights______________
5. Accommodations (Check one):
□ Hotel/motel □ Casino Hotel □ Campground/RV Park □ Bed & Breakfast □ Condo □Staying with friends/family
6. Purpose of Visit:
□ Visit friends/family □ Leisure Business □ Other □ Event If so, what event? __________________________
7. During this visit, how much money did you spend per day on the following?
Lodging_________________ Food_________________ Transportation___________
Events/attractions________________ Shopping_________________ Misc.________
8. Education (Check one):
□high school graduate □some high school □technical school □some college □college degree □graduate school
9. Your Age: ________________
10. Gender: □ male □female
11. Occupation (please specify): ___________________________________________________________________
12. Which category is closest to your family income? (Check one):
□less than $19,999 □$20,000 -$39,999 □$40,000 – $59,999 □$60,000 – $79,999 □$80,000 -$99,999
□$100,000 – $119,000 □$120,000 – $139,999 □$140,000+
If you would like to receive more information about this event or other events in Harrison County, please provide your
Mailing address and email address.
Name: _________________________________________________________________________________________
Address: _______________________________________________________________________________________
City: ________________________________________________________________ State: ____________________
Email: ________________________________________________________________________________________ Please list your COMPANY NAME and BUSINESS STREET ADDRESS above – no P.O. Boxes please! This address is required to qualify, even if you want the magazine mailed to your home or P.O. Box.
Your email address is used to communicate with you about your subscription, related products and services, and offers from select vendors. Refer to ACO Corp Media’s Privacy Policy for additional information.
The publisher only accepts applications meeting the qualification criteria for the magazine. We have Ascension Center Network & Corporate Headquarters is Ascension Center Organization in ACO Corp A C Corporation of Kentucky, USA. Please include your Fax Cell phone, and Email> Thank you TJ
EMAIL:
Cell Phone:
Fax Number:
Please check here if your home address is your business address.
If you want delivery to your home or Business P.O. Box, please complete the area below.
Please mail my copy to: Home (below) P.O. Box (below) Business Address (above)
Home Street Address or P.O. Box:
City:
State/Province:
Zip/Postal Code:
Country:

ACO Corp Executive Summary
For Ascension Center Organization and Ascension Center Network of Organizers
ACO Corp is an event planning company specializing in corporate customers.
ACO will offer two types of services; retreat training services as well as product launch event planning.
The retreat training services will be either leadership development training or team skills training.
For both types of retreats:
ACO Corp can take care of the planning of the event, as well as actually hosting the training through the use of one of ACO CORP’s strategic business partners.
The mission of the American Cooperation Organization Corporation of Corporate Retreat Professionals is to provide companies with the highest level of event planning.
We exist to attract and maintain customers. When we adhere to this maxim, everything else will fall into place.
Our services will exceed the expectations of our customers.
The corporate market for event planning is steady and profitable.
For some large companies, economic downturns means cuts in training. This is only the case for shortsighted companies however.
The benchmark companies may trim down the work force during a downturn, but they do not cut funds for training.
They recognize that investments in human resources are always a good investment.
ACO Corp intends to profit nicely from this intelligent business strategy.
Additionally, even in times of economic downturn, companies still have product launches and will still need someone to organize these events.
In short, the need for corporate event planning/ hosting services rarely diminishes, it is a steadily increasing demand that ACO Corp will capitalize on with our chosen friends as Organizers for our various similar interests in the interests of others as social entrepreneurs.

American Cooperation Organizers as Corporate Retreat Professionals’ projected growth rate is over 100% through year three and will have profits as a function of sales over 11% by year three. By the beginning of year two CRP will have four employees.

This sample marketing plan was created with Marketing Plan Pro software.

Situation Analysis
ACO Corp is entering their first year of business.
Marketing will be critical to develop sufficient business to achieve profitability. The company offers high quality event planning for two specific areas, corporate training and product release events. The basic market need is for a competent service provider offering high quality event planning at a price that is cost effective relative to a company trying to plan the events themselves.

Market Summary
ACO Corp possesses good information regarding its typical customer. This includes customer needs, the general circumstances from which the needs arise, and the difficulties the customer would face if they tried to satisfy these needs themselves.
This information will be leveraged to better understand who is served, individual customers’ specific needs, better communication channels, and how CRP can satisfy those needs.

Market Analysis
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Potential Customers Growth CAGR
Large companies 9% 1,158 1,262 1,376 1,500 1,635 9.01%
Small companies 8% 1,878 2,028 2,190 2,365 2,554 7.99%
Other 0% 0 0 0 0 0 0.00%
Total 8.38% 3,036 3,290 3,566 3,865 4,189 8.38%
Market Needs
ACO Corp is providing its customers with a high quality event planning service that specializes in both corporate retreats for training purposes as well as product launch events.
ACO Corp seeks to fulfill the following benefits that are important to their customers:

Professionalism- This is imperative as the service Aco Corp provides is, in effect, a representation of the client corporation itself.
Competitive pricing- The pricing scheme must be competitive to offer an incentive for the customer to outsource these services.
Customer service- The customer must get the sense that all of their needs are being met, regardless how small or inconsequential it may seem.
Market Trends
The market trend for event planning has seen a surge within the last four years, a response to corporations’ impetus to outsource non-essential tasks. This industry space has gotten more competitive for several reasons:

Increased demand has increased the number of competitors.
With the increase of general event planner service providers, there has also been an emergence of specialized event planners that only offer one or two types of event planning services.
The trend for outsourcing is not specific to the event planning industry, but can be seen in many industries like IT assistance, accounting, payroll, and design work.

Market Growth
In 2000, the event planning market had $453 in annual revenue. This market space is forecasted to grow at 6% for the next four years. This growth can primarily be attributed to companies tightening their focus on their core competencies and abandoning in-house support of activities that they do not excel in.
SWOT Analysis
The following SWOT analysis captures the key strengths and weaknesses within the company, and describes the opportunities and threats facing Corporate Retreat Professionals.

Strengths
Superior, specialized service offerings.
Well-trained, enthusiastic employees.
Strong relationships with complementary service providers.
Weaknesses
The concentration of a small niche of the market that will limit the potential size of the market.
The difficulty of generating awareness and visibility of the company in its first few years of operation.
The inability to rapidly scale to meet large, unexpected increases in demand.
Opportunities
A growing market of companies that are outsourcing event planning activities.
Being one of the first service providers concentrating on this specific niche.
Relatively low overhead.
Threats
A slump in the economy that could have a ripple effect on service providers.
Future competition from existing service providers competing in different but complimentary market spaces.
The inability to find qualified, high quality employees.
Competition
Currently there are three other companies that offer event planning specifically to corporations.
They, however, tend do events that are more general in scope such as parties to reward customers or employees, or events to change the company’s image. There is no company that specializes in event planning of corporate training and product release events. There are companies that offer corporate training, but these companies provide the actual training and do not do any of the actual event planning/ logistics of the entire event.
There is also no company that specializes in product release events. There are companies that do provide this service, but they do not specialize in it.
Because event planning is a tight market, ACO Corp will benefit from specialization.

The buying pattern for the larger corporations was, in the past, to have an in-house solution. This pattern is disappearing in favor of outsourcing as there is the constant drive for gains in efficiency, something outsourcing can offer.
Service Offering
ACO Corp will offer event planning for the corporate market.
ACO Corp will concentrate on two types of event planning: Corporate Retreats ad Product Launches
1. Corporate retreats-

These events are typically used for two different reasons. They are either leadership training or team building training where employees of the corporations are sent to develop these skills.
In addition to the planning of the events, ACO CORP will be able to host the event as well. While ACO CORP’s core competencies are not in hosting, ACO CORP will align itself with a well-respected host of leadership development/ teaming skills programs and have them assist ACO CORP in the hosting aspect.
Using a strategic partner in this case allows ACO CORP to stick with a narrow focus but still offer the service to our customers.
1. Product launches-

These are events where the corporation is releasing a product and they have an event that is open to people outside of the corporation, such as industry press, distribution partners, or current key customers.
The purpose of the product launch event is to create visibility for the new release.
Keys to Success
The keys to success are:
2. Generate repeat business.
3. Achieve sufficient market visibility.
4. Accomplish benchmarked customer service.
5. Critical Issues
ACO CORP is still in the speculative stages as a start- up organization.
It faces the following critical issues:

• Continue to take a modest approach toward expansion, expanding not for the sake of expansion in itself, but because it is necessary to meet the needs of their customers.
• Establish ACO CORP as the premier niche event planner of the Spiritual Network of Ascension Age for sustainability in the Global Community corporate market.

Event Planning Marketing Plan
Corporate Retreat Professionals
This sample marketing plan was created with Marketing Plan Pro software.
Marketing Strategy
American Cooperation Organizers Corporate Retreat Professionals will be aggressively courting companies to win future contracts.
ACO OCRP will offer a superior service at a lower cost due to specialization.
By concentrating on a few specific services, ACO CORP will become proficient at these services and perform the services better than someone without the same level of expertise.
ACO CORP will increase company visibility through a website, local Chamber of Commerce networking, and participation in trade shows.
The website will be quite detailed and provide a visitor in-depth information about the services ACO CORP offers, the corresponding high level of quality, and the cost savings that can be achieved by using ACO CORP.
ACO CORP will also be quite active in the local Chambers of Commerce in the Seattle metropolitan area.
Over the years ACO CORP founder Theresa J Morris has come to realize that a lot of business transacts through the Chamber of Commerce or relationships that were started through this organization.
Lastly, ACO CORP will be active in the many trade shows that come throughout the USA before going global.
The use of trade shows allows members of ACO CORP to make initial contacts with a wide range of businesses that would otherwise be difficult to approach.
Mission
The mission of the ACO Corp Corporate Retreat Professionals is to provide companies with the highest level of event planning.
We exist to attract and maintain customers.
When we adhere to this maxim, everything else will fall into place.
Our services will exceed the expectations of our customers.
Marketing Objectives
Increase repeat customers by 7% per quarter.
Decrease customer acquisition costs by 8% per year.
Generate increased awareness of services offered, quantified by a 2% quarterly increase of unsolicited service requests.
Financial Objectives
Profitability by year three.
Maintain steady, monthly growth.
Decrease training and production costs.
Target Markets
ACO CORP is providing services to corporate customers only.
We will not be going after the “social event market” which is an alternative market niche within the event planning industry.
The corporate customer is a company that contracts with ACO CORP to plan and typically host an event for the company.
Corporations will be turning to ACO CORP to plan the events because:
It is cost efficient for a third party to plan the event.
This is the case because the third party only does event planning so they can plan and host the event more efficiently.
The company does not have additional people who can be taken away from their daily jobs, nor time to invest in an infrequent event.
Our event planning services for corporate retreats will typically be utilized by larger corporation’s especially nonprofit corporations with a low budge threshold.
A larger company can be generally defined as one with more than 40 employees.
Smaller companies sometimes will utilize this service of ours; however, it is the larger corporations that typically have the budget for this activity.
For our product launch event planning, we will be servicing companies of all different sizes.
Typically the companies that use this service will be product based companies, but we will also offer these service to service-based companies who desire to announce a new service that they are offering.
Positioning
ACO CORP will position itself as a niche service event planner serving the USA corporate market first before offering our services to the global community due to the executive expense of travel when we can utilize our hour as base on the computers and utilizing cyberspace management for our administrative costs of organization… The Seattle market will recognize the value that CRP provides with its specialized services.
ACO CORP will leverage its competitive edge to achieve the desired positioning.
ACO CORP’s competitive edge will be based on two factors, specialization and strategic relationships.
ACO CORP will be specializing in two distinct areas of corporate planning.
While specializing essentially precludes ACO CORP participating in some other market niches, it allows the company to excel in serving its chosen markets
The expert knowledge allows ACO CORP to provide the service as a cost saving to the client company because it can concentrate on improving the current offerings.
Improvements that ACO CORP strives for are a reduction in cost charged to the client and an improvement to the level of services offered.
ACO CORP’s second competitive edge is based on the use of strategic relationships.
Theresa Janette fondly called TJ for efficiency in digital usage clearly realizes that she and her staff cannot be good at everything.
Therefore, ACO CORP believes it is better to concentrate on a few things, excel in those areas, and form strategic partnerships with companies that excel in the service areas that ACO CORP doesn’t.
Applying this philosophy, TJ has decided that in addition to planning corporate retreat training sessions, she wants ACO CORP to offer the service of hosting/ leading these events as well.
The service of hosting/ leading is quite different than planning and ACO CORP believes that it would be more cost effective to form a strategic relationship with an expert in this field instead of trying to become proficient in-house.
ACO CORP then is able to offer a top notch service offering of hosting/ leading the training seminars but does not have to invest heavily in developing the programs.
Strategy Pyramids
The single objective is to position ACO CORP as the premier niche event planner serving the corporate market.
The marketing strategy will seek to create customer awareness regarding the services offered, develop the customer base, and work toward building customer loyalty and referrals.
This objective will be communicated using several different methods.
• This first method will be through the use of CRP’s website. The website will be a rich source of information detailing services offered, previous customers, examples of their work, etc.
• The second method of communication will be through networking with Chambers of Commerce. The networking activities will be important and fruitful as a significant amount of business gets conducted through the Chamber of Commerce. By being an active member of the Chamber as well as networking with other members, a lot of business will be derived from these relationships.
• The last method of communication will be through participation at various trade shows. Trade shows are an excellent venue for generating awareness of the company because most or all of the participants at a trade show are there because they are seeking information. Participation at several of the larger trade shows will be an excellent source for contacts at prospective companies.
Marketing Mix
ACO CORP’s marketing mix is comprised of the following approaches to pricing, distribution, advertising and promotion, and customer service.
• Pricing- The pricing scheme will be based on a per project estimate tailored to each customer.
• Distribution- ACO CORP’s services can be performed throughout the North American regional area, determined by the needs of the customer. At present we are concentrating on USA, Canada, and Mexico. We also include the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation and the European Economic Cooperation.
• Advertising and Promotion- Several forms of advertising and promotion will be used including a website, partnerships/ networking with the Chambers of Commerce, and participation at various tradeshows.
• Customer Service- the Company goes about the day-to-day operations with the belief that 100% customer satisfaction is required in order to make the business a success. All levels of the organization have been taught this and practice it.
Marketing Research
The main source of marketing research that ACO CORP used to validate and improve their marketing plan was a comprehensive questionnaire that was administered via email.
By using email as the method of delivery ACO CORP was able to send out far more questionnaires for the same amount of money than if they were to use more traditional, labor intensive methods, and received more responses with a faster response time.
The questionnaire was comprised of 75 different questions with each question having four possible answers to choose from. The questionnaire was designed to elicit information regarding customer preferences, the different types of outsourced activities companies typically use, as well as to test assumptions held by the founders regarding the perspective market. The survey was constructed by a Statistics graduate student from the University of Washington and was heavily tested to ensure valid, significant, relevant results. A total of 300 questionnaires were sent out with a return rate of 31%. This return rate is far better than a traditional survey. The main factor in this extraordinary return rate is that the participants were friends or acquaintances of the CRP or someone connected to CRP, and the participants were given a heads-up to prepare them for answering the upcoming survey.
Strategic Alliances
ACO Corp Corporate Retreat Professionals will develop a group of strategic alliances to enhance its service offerings. The first two will be:
1st-At-The-Top ACO CORP will depend upon its website for marketing promotion and client proposal development.
A clean, easy to navigate website is essential for e-commerce.
But first a customer has to find the website. Listings with the large search engine data bases and subsequent placement in search results displays are a mystery to most people.
In reality, it requires skilled specialized work to get a website out where customers will find it.
ACO OCRP will utilize the expert services TJ Morris Publishing Internet and E-commerce Consultants to build their website and position it on the Internet.
Innovative Learning Group committees of Organizers who have come together in 2012 at ACO CORP are negotiating with the corporate trainers as an Innovative Learning Group to provide the program content and facilitation of the leadership and team training seminar.
ACO CORP will plan for its corporate clients.
Additional host/presentation/service provider alliances will be built, allowing ACO CORP to offer complete start-to-finish event planning and implementation.

Event Planning Marketing Plan
Corporate Retreat Professionals
This sample marketing plan was created with Marketing Plan Pro software.
Financials
This section will offer a financial overview of ACO Corp Corporate Retreat Professionals as it relates to the marketing activities.
ACO CORP will address break-even analysis, sales forecasts, and how they link to the marketing strategy.
Break-even Analysis
The Break-even Analysis indicates that $13,129 will be needed in monthly revenue to achieve the Break-even point.

Break-even Analysis 2012
Monthly Revenue Break-even $9,301

Assumptions:
Average Percent Variable Cost 5%
Estimated Monthly Fixed Cost $9,300
Sales Forecast
ACO CORP will, for the most part, be using the sale strategy of personal selling.
With his five years of consulting for larger corporations, TJ has formed relationships throughout the business community, and will leverage these relationships into an initial client base.
Once things get rolling and ACO CORP has developed some satisfied clients, TJ will be building additional relationships with her network of friends generated through the Chambers of Commerce and trade shows along with her new partner Janet Lessin of Hawaii who has taken on the Editor and Administrator position of the ACO Corp Ascension Center Network with TJ of the Ascension Center Organization.

ACO CORP ASCENSION CENTER ORGANIZATION
TJ’s spiel to prospective customers will be based on the high level of service offered and cost advantages by going with ACO CORP and the Ascension Center Organization and Ascension Center Network of Organizers.
The cost savings can be quantified and shown to the customer while the higher level of service can be guaranteed as well as communicated through testimonials from satisfied clients.
The website will be utilized as a powerful communications tool, supplying introductory information to prospective customers, providing an avenue for questions and answers, as well as presenting more specialized information such as cost estimates and event proposals.
The first month will be spent setting up the office. It is unlikely that there will be any sales activity within the first two months. During the first and second month, TJ and Janet will be developing some systems to provide a template for future event planning. Once this is set up ACO CORP should be able to process customer service requests rather easily.
The third month will see some sales activity trickle. It will not be until the fifth month that things will really kick in. During months six through 12 sales will steadily increase, and this increase should continue well into year two.

Sales Forecast
2012 2013 2014
Sales
Large companies $58,764 $122,547 $135,855
Small companies $35,602 $65,458 $78,958
Total Sales $94,366 $188,005 $214,813

Direct Cost of Sales
2012 2013 2014
Large companies $2,938 $6,127 $6,793
Small companies $1,780 $3,273 $3,948
Subtotal Direct Cost of Sales $4,718 $9,400 $10,741
Expense Forecast
The marketing expenses are budgeted so that they are fairly high during the first quarter of operation, a strategy to develop visibility for the start-up organization. After that the expenses will ramp up during certain months to cover the costs of specific events such as different trade shows.

Marketing Expense Budget
2012 2013 2014
Website $2,100 $1,200 $1,200
Networking $2,950 $3,500 $4,000
Other $5,100 $7,000 $9,000
———— ———— ————
Total Sales and Marketing Expenses $10,150 $11,700 $14,200
Percent of Sales
Controls
The purpose of this marketing plan is to serve as a guide for the organization.
The following areas will be monitored to gauge performance:
Revenue- Both monthly as well as annual tracking for both Ascension Center Network in Hawaii and Ascension Center Organization in Kentucky, USA.
Customer satisfaction.
Margins- A relative comparison between the two types of services offered.
Percentage of new business relative to repeat customers.
Implementation
The following milestones identify the key marketing programs. It is important to accomplish each one on time and on budget. The Arizona Ascension Center Group of Organizers will be franchised to follow our implementation of administration and Executive planning. We shall franchise our efforts from there.

Milestones

Advertising Start Date End Date Budget Manager Department
Marketing plan completion 6/1/2012 2/1/2013 $0 TJ’s Department
Website development 6/1/2012 2/1/2013 $1,000 TJ’s Department
Trade show #1 10/1/2013 10/31/2013 $1,500 Ascension Center Department
Trade show #2 7/1/2013 7/31/2013 $2,000 Ascension Center Department
Trade show #3 10/1/2013 10/30/2013 $600 Arizona ACO Department
CAN Name me 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ACN Department
CAN Name me 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ACO Department
CAN Name me 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ACN Department
CAN Name me 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ACO Department
Other 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ABC Department
Total Advertising Budget $5,100
PR Start Date End Date Budget Manager Department
Name me 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ABC Department
Name me 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ABC Department
Name me 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ABC Department
Other 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ABC Department
Total PR Budget $0
Direct Marketing Start Date End Date Budget Manager Department
Name me 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ABC Department
Name me 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ABC Department
Name me 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ABC Department
Other 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ABC Department
Total Direct Marketing Budget $0
Web Development Start Date End Date Budget Manager Department
Name me 1/1/2014 1/15/2014 $0 ABC Department
Name me 1/1/2014 1/15/2014 $0 ABC Department
Name me 1/1/2014 1/15/2014 $0 ABC Department
Other 1/1/2014 1/15/2014 $0 ABC Department
Total Web Development Budget $0
Other Start Date End Date Budget Manager Department
Name me 1/1/2015 1/15/2015 $0 ABC Department
Name me 1/1/2015 1/15/2015 $0 ABC Department
Name me 1/1/2016 1/15/2016 $0 ABC Department
Other 1/1/2016 1/15/2016 $0 ABC Department
Total Other Budget $0
Totals $5,100
Contingency Planning
Difficulties and risks:
• Problems generating visibility.
• The entry into the Seattle market by an overly aggressive competitor.
• A sudden boom in the economy that encourages companies to take on projects that they would otherwise outsource.
Worst case risks may include:
• Determining that the business cannot support itself on an ongoing basis.
• Having to liquidate equipment to cover liabilities.
Any further information please address inquiries to TJ Morris Publishing @gmail.com. Thank you
Sincerely Yours,

Theresa J. Morris
Pres/CEO
ACO Corp.
A C Corporation of KY USA
TJMorrisPublishing@att.net
270-256-8230

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ACO Corp Survey and Executive Summary – Business Plan for Organizers

Event Planning Marketing Plan\ACO Corp A C Corporation of Kentucky, USA
In association with Ascension Center Organization, TJ Morris Publishing,

ACO Corp – Corporate Organizers as Event & Retreat Professionals
ACO CORP EVENT SURVEY
1. Place of residence: City___________________________________________ State_______________
Zip Code_________ Country________________________________________ (if international)
(If Harrison County resident, skip to question #6)
2. Check one: □First-time Visitor to the Mississippi Gulf Coast □ Returning Visitor to the Mississippi Gulf Coast
3. Number people in your party: __________________
4. Length of stay: Days____________ Nights______________
5. Accommodations (Check one):
□ Hotel/motel □ Casino Hotel □ Campground/RV Park □ Bed & Breakfast □ Condo □Staying with friends/family
6. Purpose of Visit:
□ Visit friends/family □ Leisure Business □ Other □ Event If so, what event? __________________________
7. During this visit, how much money did you spend per day on the following?
Lodging_________________ Food_________________ Transportation___________
Events/attractions________________ Shopping_________________ Misc.________
8. Education (Check one):
□high school graduate □some high school □technical school □some college □college degree □graduate school
9. Your Age: ________________
10. Gender: □ male □female
11. Occupation (please specify): ___________________________________________________________________
12. Which category is closest to your family income? (Check one):
□less than $19,999 □$20,000 -$39,999 □$40,000 – $59,999 □$60,000 – $79,999 □$80,000 -$99,999
□$100,000 – $119,000 □$120,000 – $139,999 □$140,000+
If you would like to receive more information about this event or other events in Harrison County, please provide your
Mailing address and email address.
Name: _________________________________________________________________________________________
Address: _______________________________________________________________________________________
City: ________________________________________________________________ State: ____________________
Email: ________________________________________________________________________________________ Please list your COMPANY NAME and BUSINESS STREET ADDRESS above – no P.O. Boxes please! This address is required to qualify, even if you want the magazine mailed to your home or P.O. Box.
Your email address is used to communicate with you about your subscription, related products and services, and offers from select vendors. Refer to ACO Corp Media’s Privacy Policy for additional information.
The publisher only accepts applications meeting the qualification criteria for the magazine. We have Ascension Center Network & Corporate Headquarters is Ascension Center Organization in ACO Corp A C Corporation of Kentucky, USA. Please include your Fax Cell phone, and Email> Thank you TJ
EMAIL:
Cell Phone:
Fax Number:
Please check here if your home address is your business address.
If you want delivery to your home or Business P.O. Box, please complete the area below.
Please mail my copy to: Home (below) P.O. Box (below) Business Address (above)
Home Street Address or P.O. Box:
City:
State/Province:
Zip/Postal Code:
Country:

ACO Corp Executive Summary
For Ascension Center Organization and Ascension Center Network of Organizers
ACO Corp is an event planning company specializing in corporate customers.
ACO will offer two types of services; retreat training services as well as product launch event planning.
The retreat training services will be either leadership development training or team skills training.
For both types of retreats:
ACO Corp can take care of the planning of the event, as well as actually hosting the training through the use of one of CRP’s strategic business partners.
The mission of the American Cooperation Organization Corporation of Corporate Retreat Professionals is to provide companies with the highest level of event planning.
We exist to attract and maintain customers. When we adhere to this maxim, everything else will fall into place.
Our services will exceed the expectations of our customers.
The corporate market for event planning is steady and profitable.
For some large companies, economic downturns means cuts in training. This is only the case for shortsighted companies however.
The benchmark companies may trim down the work force during a downturn, but they do not cut funds for training.
They recognize that investments in human resources are always a good investment.
ACO Corp intends to profit nicely from this intelligent business strategy.
Additionally, even in times of economic downturn, companies still have product launches and will still need someone to organize these events.
In short, the need for corporate event planning/ hosting services rarely diminishes, it is a steadily increasing demand that ACO Corp will capitalize on with our chosen friends as Organizers for our various similar interests in the interests of others as social entrepreneurs.

American Cooperation Organizers as Corporate Retreat Professionals’ projected growth rate is over 100% through year three and will have profits as a function of sales over 11% by year three. By the beginning of year two CRP will have four employees.

This sample marketing plan was created with Marketing Plan Pro software.

Situation Analysis
ACO Corp is entering their first year of business.
Marketing will be critical to develop sufficient business to achieve profitability. The company offers high quality event planning for two specific areas, corporate training and product release events. The basic market need is for a competent service provider offering high quality event planning at a price that is cost effective relative to a company trying to plan the events themselves.

Market Summary
ACO Corp possesses good information regarding its typical customer. This includes customer needs, the general circumstances from which the needs arise, and the difficulties the customer would face if they tried to satisfy these needs themselves.
This information will be leveraged to better understand who is served, individual customers’ specific needs, better communication channels, and how CRP can satisfy those needs.

Market Analysis
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Potential Customers Growth CAGR
Large companies 9% 1,158 1,262 1,376 1,500 1,635 9.01%
Small companies 8% 1,878 2,028 2,190 2,365 2,554 7.99%
Other 0% 0 0 0 0 0 0.00%
Total 8.38% 3,036 3,290 3,566 3,865 4,189 8.38%
Market Needs
ACO Corp is providing its customers with a high quality event planning service that specializes in both corporate retreats for training purposes as well as product launch events.
ACO Corp seeks to fulfill the following benefits that are important to their customers:

Professionalism- This is imperative as the service Aco Corp provides is, in effect, a representation of the client corporation itself.
Competitive pricing- The pricing scheme must be competitive to offer an incentive for the customer to outsource these services.
Customer service- The customer must get the sense that all of their needs are being met, regardless how small or inconsequential it may seem.
Market Trends
The market trend for event planning has seen a surge within the last four years, a response to corporations’ impetus to outsource non-essential tasks. This industry space has gotten more competitive for several reasons:

Increased demand has increased the number of competitors.
With the increase of general event planner service providers, there has also been an emergence of specialized event planners that only offer one or two types of event planning services.
The trend for outsourcing is not specific to the event planning industry, but can be seen in many industries like IT assistance, accounting, payroll, and design work.

Market Growth
In 2000, the event planning market had $453 in annual revenue. This market space is forecasted to grow at 6% for the next four years. This growth can primarily be attributed to companies tightening their focus on their core competencies and abandoning in-house support of activities that they do not excel in.
SWOT Analysis
The following SWOT analysis captures the key strengths and weaknesses within the company, and describes the opportunities and threats facing Corporate Retreat Professionals.

Strengths
Superior, specialized service offerings.
Well-trained, enthusiastic employees.
Strong relationships with complementary service providers.
Weaknesses
The concentration of a small niche of the market that will limit the potential size of the market.
The difficulty of generating awareness and visibility of the company in its first few years of operation.
The inability to rapidly scale to meet large, unexpected increases in demand.
Opportunities
A growing market of companies that are outsourcing event planning activities.
Being one of the first service providers concentrating on this specific niche.
Relatively low overhead.
Threats
A slump in the economy that could have a ripple effect on service providers.
Future competition from existing service providers competing in different but complimentary market spaces.
The inability to find qualified, high quality employees.
Competition
Currently there are three other companies that offer event planning specifically to corporations.
They, however, tend do events that are more general in scope such as parties to reward customers or employees, or events to change the company’s image. There is no company that specializes in event planning of corporate training and product release events. There are companies that offer corporate training, but these companies provide the actual training and do not do any of the actual event planning/ logistics of the entire event.
There is also no company that specializes in product release events. There are companies that do provide this service, but they do not specialize in it.
Because event planning is a tight market, ACO Corp will benefit from specialization.

The buying pattern for the larger corporations was, in the past, to have an in-house solution. This pattern is disappearing in favor of outsourcing as there is the constant drive for gains in efficiency, something outsourcing can offer.
Service Offering
ACO Corp will offer event planning for the corporate market.
ACO Corp will concentrate on two types of event planning: Corporate Retreats ad Product Launches
1. Corporate retreats-

These events are typically used for two different reasons. They are either leadership training or team building training where employees of the corporations are sent to develop these skills.
In addition to the planning of the events, ACO CORP will be able to host the event as well. While ACO CORP’s core competencies are not in hosting, ACO CORP will align itself with a well-respected host of leadership development/ teaming skills programs and have them assist ACO CORP in the hosting aspect.
Using a strategic partner in this case allows ACO CORP to stick with a narrow focus but still offer the service to our customers.
1. Product launches-

These are events where the corporation is releasing a product and they have an event that is open to people outside of the corporation, such as industry press, distribution partners, or current key customers.
The purpose of the product launch event is to create visibility for the new release.
Keys to Success
The keys to success are:
2. Generate repeat business.
3. Achieve sufficient market visibility.
4. Accomplish benchmarked customer service.
5. Critical Issues
ACO CORP is still in the speculative stages as a start- up organization.
It faces the following critical issues:

• Continue to take a modest approach toward expansion, expanding not for the sake of expansion in itself, but because it is necessary to meet the needs of their customers.
• Establish ACO CORP as the premier niche event planner of the Spiritual Network of Ascension Age for sustainability in the Global Community corporate market.

Event Planning Marketing Plan
Corporate Retreat Professionals
This sample marketing plan was created with Marketing Plan Pro software.
Marketing Strategy
American Cooperation Organizers Corporate Retreat Professionals will be aggressively courting companies to win future contracts.
ACO OCRP will offer a superior service at a lower cost due to specialization.
By concentrating on a few specific services, ACO CORP will become proficient at these services and perform the services better than someone without the same level of expertise.
ACO CORP will increase company visibility through a website, local Chamber of Commerce networking, and participation in trade shows.
The website will be quite detailed and provide a visitor in-depth information about the services ACO CORP offers, the corresponding high level of quality, and the cost savings that can be achieved by using ACO CORP.
ACO CORP will also be quite active in the local Chambers of Commerce in the Seattle metropolitan area.
Over the years ACO CORP founder Theresa J Morris has come to realize that a lot of business transacts through the Chamber of Commerce or relationships that were started through this organization.
Lastly, ACO CORP will be active in the many trade shows that come throughout the USA before going global.
The use of trade shows allows members of ACO CORP to make initial contacts with a wide range of businesses that would otherwise be difficult to approach.
Mission
The mission of the ACO Corp Corporate Retreat Professionals is to provide companies with the highest level of event planning.
We exist to attract and maintain customers.
When we adhere to this maxim, everything else will fall into place.
Our services will exceed the expectations of our customers.
Marketing Objectives
Increase repeat customers by 7% per quarter.
Decrease customer acquisition costs by 8% per year.
Generate increased awareness of services offered, quantified by a 2% quarterly increase of unsolicited service requests.
Financial Objectives
Profitability by year three.
Maintain steady, monthly growth.
Decrease training and production costs.
Target Markets
ACO CORP is providing services to corporate customers only.
We will not be going after the “social event market” which is an alternative market niche within the event planning industry.
The corporate customer is a company that contracts with ACO CORP to plan and typically host an event for the company.
Corporations will be turning to ACO CORP to plan the events because:
It is cost efficient for a third party to plan the event.
This is the case because the third party only does event planning so they can plan and host the event more efficiently.
The company does not have additional people who can be taken away from their daily jobs, nor time to invest in an infrequent event.
Our event planning services for corporate retreats will typically be utilized by larger corporation’s especially nonprofit corporations with a low budge threshold.
A larger company can be generally defined as one with more than 40 employees.
Smaller companies sometimes will utilize this service of ours; however, it is the larger corporations that typically have the budget for this activity.
For our product launch event planning, we will be servicing companies of all different sizes.
Typically the companies that use this service will be product based companies, but we will also offer these service to service-based companies who desire to announce a new service that they are offering.
Positioning
ACO CORP will position itself as a niche service event planner serving the USA corporate market first before offering our services to the global community due to the executive expense of travel when we can utilize our hour as base on the computers and utilizing cyberspace management for our administrative costs of organization… The Seattle market will recognize the value that CRP provides with its specialized services.
ACO CORP will leverage its competitive edge to achieve the desired positioning.
ACO CORP’s competitive edge will be based on two factors, specialization and strategic relationships.
ACO CORP will be specializing in two distinct areas of corporate planning.
While specializing essentially precludes ACO CORP participating in some other market niches, it allows the company to excel in serving its chosen markets
The expert knowledge allows ACO CORP to provide the service as a cost saving to the client company because it can concentrate on improving the current offerings.
Improvements that ACO CORP strives for are a reduction in cost charged to the client and an improvement to the level of services offered.
ACO CORP’s second competitive edge is based on the use of strategic relationships.
Theresa Janette fondly called TJ for efficiency in digital usage clearly realizes that she and her staff cannot be good at everything.
Therefore, ACO CORP believes it is better to concentrate on a few things, excel in those areas, and form strategic partnerships with companies that excel in the service areas that ACO CORP doesn’t.
Applying this philosophy, TJ has decided that in addition to planning corporate retreat training sessions, she wants ACO CORP to offer the service of hosting/ leading these events as well.
The service of hosting/ leading is quite different than planning and ACO CORP believes that it would be more cost effective to form a strategic relationship with an expert in this field instead of trying to become proficient in-house.
ACO CORP then is able to offer a top notch service offering of hosting/ leading the training seminars but does not have to invest heavily in developing the programs.
Strategy Pyramids
The single objective is to position ACO CORP as the premier niche event planner serving the corporate market.
The marketing strategy will seek to create customer awareness regarding the services offered, develop the customer base, and work toward building customer loyalty and referrals.
This objective will be communicated using several different methods.
• This first method will be through the use of CRP’s website. The website will be a rich source of information detailing services offered, previous customers, examples of their work, etc.
• The second method of communication will be through networking with Chambers of Commerce. The networking activities will be important and fruitful as a significant amount of business gets conducted through the Chamber of Commerce. By being an active member of the Chamber as well as networking with other members, a lot of business will be derived from these relationships.
• The last method of communication will be through participation at various trade shows. Trade shows are an excellent venue for generating awareness of the company because most or all of the participants at a trade show are there because they are seeking information. Participation at several of the larger trade shows will be an excellent source for contacts at prospective companies.
Marketing Mix
ACO CORP’s marketing mix is comprised of the following approaches to pricing, distribution, advertising and promotion, and customer service.
• Pricing- The pricing scheme will be based on a per project estimate tailored to each customer.
• Distribution- ACO CORP’s services can be performed throughout the North American regional area, determined by the needs of the customer. At present we are concentrating on USA, Canada, and Mexico. We also include the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation and the European Economic Cooperation.
• Advertising and Promotion- Several forms of advertising and promotion will be used including a website, partnerships/ networking with the Chambers of Commerce, and participation at various tradeshows.
• Customer Service- the Company goes about the day-to-day operations with the belief that 100% customer satisfaction is required in order to make the business a success. All levels of the organization have been taught this and practice it.
Marketing Research
The main source of marketing research that ACO CORP used to validate and improve their marketing plan was a comprehensive questionnaire that was administered via email.
By using email as the method of delivery ACO CORP was able to send out far more questionnaires for the same amount of money than if they were to use more traditional, labor intensive methods, and received more responses with a faster response time.
The questionnaire was comprised of 75 different questions with each question having four possible answers to choose from. The questionnaire was designed to elicit information regarding customer preferences, the different types of outsourced activities companies typically use, as well as to test assumptions held by the founders regarding the perspective market. The survey was constructed by a Statistics graduate student from the University of Washington and was heavily tested to ensure valid, significant, relevant results. A total of 300 questionnaires were sent out with a return rate of 31%. This return rate is far better than a traditional survey. The main factor in this extraordinary return rate is that the participants were friends or acquaintances of the CRP or someone connected to CRP, and the participants were given a heads-up to prepare them for answering the upcoming survey.
Strategic Alliances
ACO Corp Corporate Retreat Professionals will develop a group of strategic alliances to enhance its service offerings. The first two will be:
1st-At-The-Top ACO CORP will depend upon its website for marketing promotion and client proposal development.
A clean, easy to navigate website is essential for e-commerce.
But first a customer has to find the website. Listings with the large search engine data bases and subsequent placement in search results displays are a mystery to most people.
In reality, it requires skilled specialized work to get a website out where customers will find it.
ACO OCRP will utilize the expert services TJ Morris Publishing Internet and E-commerce Consultants to build their website and position it on the Internet.
Innovative Learning Group committees of Organizers who have come together in 2012 at ACO CORP are negotiating with the corporate trainers as an Innovative Learning Group to provide the program content and facilitation of the leadership and team training seminar.
ACO CORP will plan for its corporate clients.
Additional host/presentation/service provider alliances will be built, allowing ACO CORP to offer complete start-to-finish event planning and implementation.

Event Planning Marketing Plan
Corporate Retreat Professionals
This sample marketing plan was created with Marketing Plan Pro software.
Financials
This section will offer a financial overview of ACO Corp Corporate Retreat Professionals as it relates to the marketing activities.
ACO CORP will address break-even analysis, sales forecasts, and how they link to the marketing strategy.
Break-even Analysis
The Break-even Analysis indicates that $13,129 will be needed in monthly revenue to achieve the Break-even point.

Break-even Analysis 2012
Monthly Revenue Break-even $9,301

Assumptions:
Average Percent Variable Cost 5%
Estimated Monthly Fixed Cost $9,300
Sales Forecast
ACO CORP will, for the most part, be using the sale strategy of personal selling.
With his five years of consulting for larger corporations, TJ has formed relationships throughout the business community, and will leverage these relationships into an initial client base.
Once things get rolling and ACO CORP has developed some satisfied clients, TJ will be building additional relationships with her network of friends generated through the Chambers of Commerce and trade shows along with her new partner Janet Lessin of Hawaii who has taken on the Editor and Administrator position of the ACO Corp Ascension Center Network with TJ of the Ascension Center Organization.

ACO CORP ASCENSION CENTER ORGANIZATION
TJ’s spiel to prospective customers will be based on the high level of service offered and cost advantages by going with ACO CORP and the Ascension Center Organization and Ascension Center Network of Organizers.
The cost savings can be quantified and shown to the customer while the higher level of service can be guaranteed as well as communicated through testimonials from satisfied clients.
The website will be utilized as a powerful communications tool, supplying introductory information to prospective customers, providing an avenue for questions and answers, as well as presenting more specialized information such as cost estimates and event proposals.
The first month will be spent setting up the office. It is unlikely that there will be any sales activity within the first two months. During the first and second month, TJ and Janet will be developing some systems to provide a template for future event planning. Once this is set up ACO CORP should be able to process customer service requests rather easily.
The third month will see some sales activity trickle. It will not be until the fifth month that things will really kick in. During months six through 12 sales will steadily increase, and this increase should continue well into year two.

Sales Forecast
2012 2013 2014
Sales
Large companies $58,764 $122,547 $135,855
Small companies $35,602 $65,458 $78,958
Total Sales $94,366 $188,005 $214,813

Direct Cost of Sales
2012 2013 2014
Large companies $2,938 $6,127 $6,793
Small companies $1,780 $3,273 $3,948
Subtotal Direct Cost of Sales $4,718 $9,400 $10,741
Expense Forecast
The marketing expenses are budgeted so that they are fairly high during the first quarter of operation, a strategy to develop visibility for the start-up organization. After that the expenses will ramp up during certain months to cover the costs of specific events such as different trade shows.

Marketing Expense Budget
2012 2013 2014
Website $2,100 $1,200 $1,200
Networking $2,950 $3,500 $4,000
Other $5,100 $7,000 $9,000
———— ———— ————
Total Sales and Marketing Expenses $10,150 $11,700 $14,200
Percent of Sales
Controls
The purpose of this marketing plan is to serve as a guide for the organization.
The following areas will be monitored to gauge performance:
Revenue- Both monthly as well as annual tracking for both Ascension Center Network in Hawaii and Ascension Center Organization in Kentucky, USA.
Customer satisfaction.
Margins- A relative comparison between the two types of services offered.
Percentage of new business relative to repeat customers.
Implementation
The following milestones identify the key marketing programs. It is important to accomplish each one on time and on budget. The Arizona Ascension Center Group of Organizers will be franchised to follow our implementation of administration and Executive planning. We shall franchise our efforts from there.

Milestones

Advertising Start Date End Date Budget Manager Department
Marketing plan completion 6/1/2012 2/1/2013 $0 TJ’s Department
Website development 6/1/2012 2/1/2013 $1,000 TJ’s Department
Trade show #1 10/1/2013 10/31/2013 $1,500 Ascension Center Department
Trade show #2 7/1/2013 7/31/2013 $2,000 Ascension Center Department
Trade show #3 10/1/2013 10/30/2013 $600 Arizona ACO Department
CAN Name me 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ACN Department
CAN Name me 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ACO Department
CAN Name me 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ACN Department
CAN Name me 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ACO Department
Other 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ABC Department
Total Advertising Budget $5,100
PR Start Date End Date Budget Manager Department
Name me 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ABC Department
Name me 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ABC Department
Name me 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ABC Department
Other 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ABC Department
Total PR Budget $0
Direct Marketing Start Date End Date Budget Manager Department
Name me 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ABC Department
Name me 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ABC Department
Name me 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ABC Department
Other 1/1/2013 1/15/2013 $0 ABC Department
Total Direct Marketing Budget $0
Web Development Start Date End Date Budget Manager Department
Name me 1/1/2014 1/15/2014 $0 ABC Department
Name me 1/1/2014 1/15/2014 $0 ABC Department
Name me 1/1/2014 1/15/2014 $0 ABC Department
Other 1/1/2014 1/15/2014 $0 ABC Department
Total Web Development Budget $0
Other Start Date End Date Budget Manager Department
Name me 1/1/2015 1/15/2015 $0 ABC Department
Name me 1/1/2015 1/15/2015 $0 ABC Department
Name me 1/1/2016 1/15/2016 $0 ABC Department
Other 1/1/2006 1/15/2006 $0 ABC Department
Total Other Budget $0
Totals $5,100
Contingency Planning
Difficulties and risks:
• Problems generating visibility.
• The entry into the Seattle market by an overly aggressive competitor.
• A sudden boom in the economy that encourages companies to take on projects that they would otherwise outsource.
Worst case risks may include:
• Determining that the business cannot support itself on an ongoing basis.
• Having to liquidate equipment to cover liabilities.

TJ of Ascension Project as ACO Corp a Cooperation of Co-creators in 2012

images (26)
From: ACO Corp
American Cooperation Organization Corporation
Theresa J. Morris
President CEO
Re: Executive Summary, Business Plan, and Marketing Plan for your Projects. We can help!
To whom it may concern:

I, Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris was put on this earth to assist with my administrative and organizing skills with others to create a team spirit and esprit de corps as an Ambassador of Goodwill.
I am in the process of recruiting others to my sharing synergy to become C0-creators with me. I prefer those who I can call my friends and understand my heart in love and light.
We share Goodwill Ambassadors around the world who some are also known as Ascension Avatar Masters in the Spiritual Intellectual Community that shares the importance of doing one’s own spiritual work. Therefore we assist others in their own similar interest groups.
Our slogan and mantra is to raise synergy and awareness that we are all here to help others.
Our purpose on earth is to help others here on this planet and if we cannot help we certainly do not hurt others. We assist in creating a solution for our problems on this planet.
We offer Administrative and Executive Management to share in vertical Lifestyles to rise above poverty, depression, and all that is not for the greater good. We are about truth, wisdom and enlightenment and calling our friends to action to assist all communities.
Representing our People Helping People in Community of Practicing Skills.
We share Ascension Center Organization as Administrative Executives Cooperation for Economic Cooperation in the Global Community. We work with many organizations including the American Cooperation Organization, Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation, European Economic Cooperation, and all Economic Corporation Organizations. We are about planning for the future and putting our energy into action together as the global community for sustainability.
To be considered for investments or other business opportunities, please refer to the guidelines below.
Submit an Executive Summary from your business plan that is no longer than five pages. Please do not send an entire business plan upon initial information submission. This Executive Summary should include the following information:
Business and Products
Company’s business
Product or service description
Development schedule
Differentiation
Price point
Market
Trends
Historic and projected sizes in dollars
Distribution
Sales channels
Partnerships
Customers
Competition
Competitive advantages
Leadership Team
Management background
Board members
Financial
Historic and projected P&L
Projected cash flow
Current balance sheet
Projected head count by area (i.e., sales, marketing, engineering, Q&A)
Capitalization
Deal
Amounts raised
Valuation

My tweets

2012 People Helping People in the Ascension Age

• We in the new Ascension Age are learning the ways of communication of cosmology and etymology and ethnology while attempting to learn what sustainability of our planet and species entails.
• We share what we are all working towards as a Global Brain Consciousness in the world.
• We are now working with TJ Morris and Ascension Center Network together with the Ascension Center Organization Project on the Internet in cyberspace.
• We shall share the various levels of reality in this world and cyberspace virtual world, in space, and the Akashic field.
• We work with Theoretical Physicists, and Metaphysical Science Researchers.
• We work with Spiritual Guides and Spiritual Intellectuals including those who are interested in the history and mysteries of the Ancient Astronaut Theory.
• We share the movie and entertainment interests and our forever growing interests of our cultural heritage in not only maintaining our needs as food, clothing, shelter, and family traditions, but our cultural traditions as well.
• We share in the self-guided teach yourself role of the internet with TJ Morris & Friends that are in the ACE Folklife Club.
This is a private club which is part of the Ascension Center Organization of TJ Morris Publishing Network on the Internet. We for now are offering it as open source and later shall add the various levels in our basic packages for ACE METAPHYSICAL INSTITUTE with Janet Lessin and Janette Morris as TJ.
We meet at various events and share our symposiums such as expos and the Whole Life Expos in Canada and in the United States.
We also share other travel industry and tourism expos and special events. We are organizers. We are also mediators, and social entrepreneurs.
We are authors of our own life stories and share the support of all art, culture, education.
Cosmology
This article may contain original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding references. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. More details may be available on the free encyclopedia in Wikipedia talk page since we have been working together on this definition since October 2008.
The Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. Almost every speck of light in this image is an entire galaxy. This is just a small region of a Universe which could contain as many as 200 billion galaxies.
Cosmology is the discipline that deals with the nature of the Universe as a whole.
Cosmologists seek to understand the origin, evolution, structure, and ultimate fate of the Universe at large, as well as the natural laws that keep it in order.
Modern cosmology is dominated by the Big Bang theory, which brings together observational astronomy and particle physics.
Though the word cosmology is recent (first used in 1730 in Christian Wolff’s Cosmologia Generalis), the study of the universe has a long history involving science, philosophy, esotericism, metaphysics, and religion. Related studies include cosmogony, which focuses on the origin of the Universe, and cosmography, which maps the features of the Universe. Cosmology is also connected to astronomy. However, they are contrasted in that while the former is concerned with the Universe in its entirety, the latter deals with individual celestial objects.
Disciplines
In recent times, physics and astrophysics have played a central role in shaping the understanding of the universe through scientific observation and experiment. What is known as physical cosmology shaped through both mathematics and observation the analysis of the whole universe. It is generally understood to begin with the Big Bang, followed almost instantaneously by cosmic inflation – an expansion of space from which the universe is thought to have emerged ~13.7±0.2×109 (roughly 13.5–13.9 billion) years ago.
Physical cosmologists propose that the history of the universe has been governed entirely by physical laws. Such theories of an impersonal universe governed by physical laws were first proposed by Roger Bacon.
Between the domains of religion and science stands the philosophical perspective of metaphysical cosmology. This ancient field of study seeks to draw intuitive conclusions about the nature of the universe, man, a supernatural creator, and/or their relationships based on the extension of some set of presumed facts borrowed from spiritual experience and/or observation.
Metaphysical cosmology has also been described as the placing of man in the universe in relationship to all other entities. This is exemplified by the observation made by Marcus Aurelius of a man’s place in that relationship: “He who does not know what the world is does not know where he is, and he who does not know for what purpose the world exists, does not know who he is, nor what the world is.”
Cosmology is often an important aspect of the creation myths of religions that seek to explain the existence and nature of reality. In some cases, views about the creation (cosmogony) and destruction (eschatology) of the universe play a central role in shaping a framework of religious cosmology for understanding humanity’s role in the universe.
A more contemporary distinction between religion and philosophy, esoteric cosmology is distinguished from religion in its less tradition-bound construction and reliance on modern “intellectual understanding” rather than faith, and from philosophy in its emphasis on spirituality as a formative concept.
Historical cosmologies
Further information: Timeline of cosmology
Name Author and date Classification Remarks
Brahmanda (Hindu Cosmology) Hindu Rigveda (unknown BC) Cyclical or oscillating, Infinite in time
Babylonian cosmology Babylonian literature and Old Testament (3000–500 BC) Flat earth floating in infinite “waters of chaos” The Earth and the Heavens form a unit within infinite “waters of chaos”; the earth is flat and circular, and a solid dome (the “firmament”) keeps out the outer “chaos”-ocean.
Atomist universe Anaxagoras (500–428 BC) & later Epicurus Infinite in extent the universe contains only two things: an infinite number of tiny seeds, or atoms, and the void of infinite extent. All atoms are made of the same substance, but differ in size and shape. Objects are formed from atom aggregations and decay back into atoms. Incorporates Leucippus’ principle of causality: “nothing happens at random; everything happens out of reason and necessity.” The universe was not ruled by gods.
Pythagorean universe Philolaus (d. 390 BC) Existence of a “Central Fire” at the center of the Universe. At the center of the Universe is a central fire, around which the Earth, Sun, Moon and planets revolve uniformly. The Sun revolves around the central fire once a year, the stars are immobile. The earth in its motion maintains the same hidden face towards the central fire, hence it is never seen. This is the first known non-geocentric model of the Universe.
Stoic universe Stoics (300 BC – 200 AD) Island universe the cosmos is finite and surrounded by an infinite void. It is in a state of flux, as it pulsates in size and periodically passes through upheavals and conflagrations.
Aristotelian universe Aristotle (384–322 BC) Geocentric, static, steady state, finite extent, infinite time Spherical earth is surrounded by concentric celestial spheres. Universe exists unchanged throughout eternity. Contains a fifth element, called aether (later known as quintessence), and added to the four Classical elements.
Aristarchean universe Aristarchus (circa 280 BC) Heliocentric Earth rotates daily on its axis and revolves annually about the sun in a circular orbit. Sphere of fixed stars is centered about the sun.
Ptolemaic model (based on Aristotelian universe) Ptolemy (2nd century AD) Geocentric Universe orbits about a stationary Earth. Planets move in circular epicycles, each having a center that moved in a larger circular orbit (called an eccentric or a deferent) around a center-point near the Earth. The use of equants added another level of complexity and allowed astronomers to predict the positions of the planets. The most successful universe model of all time, using the criterion of longevity. Almagest (the Great System).
Aryabhatan model Aryabhata (499) Geocentric or Heliocentric The Earth rotates and the planets move in elliptical orbits, possibly around either the Earth or the Sun. It is uncertain whether the model is geocentric or heliocentric due to planetary orbits given with respect to both the Earth and the Sun.
Medieval universe Medieval philosophers (500–1200) Finite in time A universe that is finite in time and has a beginning is proposed by the Christian philosopher, John Philoponus, who argues against the ancient Greek notion of an infinite past. Logical arguments supporting a finite universe are developed by the early Muslim philosopher Alkindus, the Jewish philosopher Saadia Gaon and the Muslim theologian Algazel.
Multiversal cosmology Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209) Multiverse, multiple worlds & universes There exists an infinite outer space beyond the known world, and God has the power to fill the vacuum with an infinite number of universes.
Maragha models Maragha school (1259–1528) Geocentric various modifications to Ptolemaic model and Aristotelian universe, including rejection of equant and eccentrics at Maragheh observatory, and introduction of Tusi-couple by Al-Tusi. Alternative models later proposed, including the first accurate lunar model by In al-Shatir, a model rejecting stationary Earth in favor of Earth’s rotation by Ali Kuşçu, and planetary model incorporating “circular inertia” by Al-Birjandi.
Nilakanthan model Nilakantha Somayaji (1444–1544) Geocentric and Heliocentric A universe in which the planets orbit the Sun and the Sun orbits the Earth, similar to the later Tychonic system.
Copernican universe Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) Heliocentric with circular planetary orbits first clearly described heliocentric model, in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium.
Tychonic system Tycho Brahe (1546–1601) Geocentric and Heliocentric A universe in which the planets orbit the Sun and the Sun orbits the Earth, similar to the earlier Nilakanthan model.
Keplerian Johann Kepler (1571–1630) Heliocentric with elliptical planetary orbits Kepler’s discoveries, marrying mathematics and physics, provided the foundation for our present conception of the Solar system, but distant stars were still seen as objects in a thin, fixed celestial sphere.
Static Newtonian Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727) Static (evolving), steady state, infinite every particle in the universe attracts every other particle. Matter on the large scale is uniformly distributed. Gravitationally balanced but unstable.
Cartesian Vortex universe René Descartes
17th century
Static (evolving), steady state, infinite A system of huge swirling whirlpools of aethereal or fine matter produces what we would call gravitational effects. His vacuum was not empty. All space was filled with matter that swirled around in large and small vortices.
Hierarchical universe Immanuel Kant, Johann Lambert 18th century Static (evolving), steady state, infinite Matter is clustered on ever larger scales of hierarchy. Matter is endlessly being recycled.
Einstein Universe with a cosmological constant Albert Einstein 1917 Static (nominally). Bounded (finite) “Matter without motion.” Contains uniformly distributed matter. Uniformly curved spherical space; based on Riemann’s hypersphere. Curvature is set equal to Λ. In effect Λ is equivalent to a repulsive force which counteracts gravity. Unstable.
De Sitter universe Willem de Sitter 1917 Expanding flat space.
Steady state. Λ > 0
“Motion without matter.” Only apparently static. Based on Einstein’s General Relativity. Space expands with constant acceleration. Scale factor (radius of universe) increases exponentially, i.e. constant inflation.
MacMillan universe William Duncan MacMillan 1920s Static &
steady state
New matter is created from radiation. Starlight is perpetually recycled into new matter particles.
Friedmann universe of spherical space Alexander Friedmann 1922 Spherical expanding space.
k= +1 ; no Λ
Positive curvature. Curvature constant k = +1
Expands then recollapses. Spatially closed (finite).
Friedmann universe of hyperbolic space Alexander Friedmann 1924 Hyperbolic expanding space.
k= -1 ; no Λ
Negative curvature. Said to be infinite (but ambiguous). Unbounded. Expands forever.
Dirac large numbers hypothesis Paul Dirac 1930s Expanding Demands a large variation in G, which decreases with time. Gravity weakens as universe evolves.
Friedmann zero-curvature, a.k.a. the Einstein-DeSitter universe Einstein & DeSitter 1932 Expanding flat space.
k= 0 ; Λ = 0 Critical density
Curvature constant k = 0. Said to be infinite (but ambiguous). ‘Unbounded cosmos of limited extent.’ Expands forever. ‘Simplest’ of all known universes. Named after but not considered by Friedmann. Has a deceleration term q =½ which means that its expansion rate slows down.
The original Big Bang. a.k.a. Friedmann-Lemaître Model Georges Lemaître 1927–29 Expansion
Λ > 0 Λ > |Gravity|
Λ is positive and has a magnitude greater than Gravity. Universe has initial high density state (‘primeval atom’). Followed by a two stage expansion. Λ is used to destabilize the universe. (Lemaître is considered to be the father of the big bang model.)
Oscillating universe
(a.k.a. Friedmann-Einstein; was latter’s 1st choice after rejecting his own 1917 model)
Favored by Friedmann
1920s
Expanding and contracting in cycles Time is endless and beginningless; thus avoids the beginning-of-time paradox. Perpetual cycles of big bang followed by big crunch.
Eddington Arthur Eddington 1930 First Static
then Expands
Static Einstein 1917 universe with its instability disturbed into expansion mode; with relentless matter dilution becomes a DeSitter universe. Λ dominates gravity.
Milne universe of kinematic relativity Edward Milne, 1933, 1935;
William H. McCrea, 1930s
Kinematic expansion with NO space expansion Rejects general relativity and the expanding space paradigm. Gravity not included as initial assumption. Obeys cosmological principle & rules of special relativity. The Milne expanding universe consists of a finite spherical cloud of particles (or galaxies) that expands WITHIN flat space which is infinite and otherwise empty. It has a center and a cosmic edge (the surface of the particle cloud) which expands at light speed. His explanation of gravity was elaborate and unconvincing. For instance, his universe has an infinite number of particles, hence infinite mass, within a finite cosmic volume.
Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker class of models Howard Robertson, Arthur Walker, 1935 Uniformly expanding Class of universes that are homogenous and isotropic. Spacetime separates into uniformly curved space and cosmic time common to all comoving observers. The formulation system is now known as the FLRW or Robertson-Walker metrics of cosmic time and curved space.
Steady-state expanding (Bondi & Gold) Herman Bondi, Thomas Gold 1948 Expanding, steady state, infinite Matter creation rate maintains constant density. Continuous creation out of nothing from nowhere. Exponential expansion. Deceleration term q = -1.
Steady-state expanding (Hoyle) Fred Hoyle 1948 Expanding, steady state; but unstable Matter creation rate maintains constant density. But since matter creation rate must be exactly balanced with the space expansion rate the system is unstable.
Ambiplasma Hannes Alfvén 1965 Oskar Klein Cellular universe, expanding by means of matter-antimatter annihilation Based on the concept of plasma cosmology. The universe is viewed as meta-galaxies divided by double layers —hence its bubble-like nature. Other universes are formed from other bubbles. Ongoing cosmic matter-antimatter annihilations keep the bubbles separated and moving apart preventing them from interacting.
Brans-Dicke Carl H. Brans; Robert H. Dicke Expanding Based on Mach’s principle. G varies with time as universe expands. “But nobody is quite sure what Mach’s principle actually means.”[citation needed]
Cosmic inflation Alan Guth 1980 Big Bang with modification to solve horizon problem and flatness problem. Based on the concept of hot inflation. The universe is viewed as a multiple quantum flux —hence its bubble-like nature. Other universes are formed from other bubbles. Ongoing cosmic expansion kept the bubbles separated and moving apart preventing them from interacting.
Eternal Inflation (a multiple universe model) Andreï Linde 1983 Big Bang with cosmic inflation A multiverse, based on the concept of cold inflation, in which inflationary events occur at random each with independent initial conditions; some expand into bubble universes supposedly like our entire cosmos. Bubbles nucleate in a spacetime foam.
Cyclic model Paul Steinhardt; Neil Turok 2002 Expanding and contracting in cycles; M theory. Two parallel orbifold planes or M-branes collide periodically in a higher dimensional space. With quintessence or dark energy
Cyclic model Lauris Baum;Paul Frampton 2007 Solution of Tolman’s entropy problem Phantom dark energy fragments universe into large number of disconnected patches. Our patch contracts containing only dark energy with zero entropy.
Table notes: the term “static” simply means not expanding and not contracting. Symbol G represents Newton’s gravitational constant; Λ (Lambda) is the cosmological constant.
Physical cosmology
Main article: Physical cosmology
Physical cosmology is the branch of physics and astrophysics that deals with the study of the physical origins and evolution of the Universe. It also includes the study of the nature of the Universe on its very largest scales. In its earliest form it was what is now known as celestial mechanics, the study of the heavens. The Greek philosophers Aristarchus of Samos, Aristotle and Ptolemy proposed different cosmological theories. In particular, the geocentric Ptolemaic system was the accepted theory to explain the motion of the heavens until Nicolaus Copernicus, and subsequently Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei proposed a heliocentric system in the 16th century. This is known as one of the most famous examples of epistemological rupture in physical cosmology.
With Isaac Newton and the 1687 publication of Principia Mathematica, the problem of the motion of the heavens was finally solved. Newton provided a physical mechanism for Kepler’s laws and his law of universal gravitation allowed the anomalies in previous systems, caused by gravitational interaction between the planets, to be resolved. A fundamental difference between Newton’s cosmology and those preceding it was the Copernican principle that the bodies on earth obey the same physical laws as all the celestial bodies. This was a crucial philosophical advance in physical cosmology.
Modern scientific cosmology is usually considered to have begun in 1917 with Albert Einstein’s publication of his final modification of general relativity in the paper “Cosmological Considerations of the General Theory of Relativity,” (although this paper was not widely available outside of Germany until the end of World War I). General relativity prompted cosmogonists such as Willem de Sitter, Karl Schwarzschild and Arthur Eddington to explore the astronomical consequences of the theory, which enhanced the growing ability of astronomers to study very distant objects. Prior to this (and for some time afterwards), physicists assumed that the Universe was static and unchanging.
In parallel to this dynamic approach to cosmology, one long-standing debate about the structure of the cosmos was coming to a climax. Mount Wilson astronomer Harlow Shapley championed the model of a cosmos made up of the Milky Way star system only ; while Heber D. Curtis argued for the idea that spiral nebulae were star systems in their own right – island universes. This difference of ideas came to a climax with the organization of the Great Debate at the meeting of the (US) National Academy of Sciences in Washington on 26 April 1920. The resolution of this debate came with the detection of novae in the Andromeda galaxy by Edwin Hubble in 1923 and 1924. Their distance established spiral nebulae well beyond the edge of the Milky Way and has galaxies of their own.
Subsequent modeling of the universe explored the possibility that the cosmological constant introduced by Einstein in his 1917 paper may result in an expanding universe, depending on its value.
Thus the big bang model was proposed by the Belgian priest Georges Lemaître in 1927 which was subsequently corroborated by Edwin Hubble’s discovery of the red shift in 1929 and later by the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation by Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson in 1964.
These findings were a first step to rule out some of many alternative physical cosmologies.
Recent observations made by the COBE and WMAP satellites observing this background radiation have effectively, in many scientists’ eyes, transformed cosmology from a highly speculative science into a predictive science, as these observations matched predictions made by a theory called Cosmic inflation, which is a modification of the standard big bang model. This has led many to refer to modern times as the “Golden age of cosmology.”
Metaphysical cosmology
See also: Religious cosmology
In philosophy and metaphysics, cosmology deals with the world as the totality of space, time and all phenomena. Historically, it has had quite a broad scope, and in many cases was founded in religion. The ancient Greeks did not draw a distinction between this use and their model for the cosmos. However, in modern use it addresses questions about the Universe which are beyond the scope of science. It is distinguished from religious cosmology in that it approaches these questions using philosophical methods (e.g. dialectics). Modern metaphysical cosmology tries to address questions such as:
What is the origin of the Universe? What is its first cause? Is its existence necessary? (see monism, pantheism, emanationism and creationism)
What are the ultimate material components of the Universe? (see mechanism, dynamism, hylomorphism, atomism)
What is the ultimate reason for the existence of the Universe? Does the cosmos have a purpose? (see teleology)
Does the existence of consciousness have a purpose? How do we know what we know about the totality of the cosmos? Does cosmological reasoning reveal metaphysical truths? (see epistemology)
See also
Astronomy portal
Absolute time and space
Astrology
Astronomy
List of astrophysicists
Non-standard cosmology
Taiji (philosophy)
Tao
Notes
^ http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn9988-instant-expert-cosmology.html
^ http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/cosmology
^ Spergel; Verde; Peiris; Komatsu; Nolta; Bennett; Halpern; Hinshaw et al (2003). “First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations”. arXiv:astro-ph/0302209 [astro-ph].
^ “The thoughts of Marcus Aurelius Antonius viii. 52”.
^ Boyer, C. A History of Mathematics. Wiley, p. 54.
^ Alan Guth is reported to have made this very claim in an Edge Foundation interview EDGE
References
Cronin, Vincent, The View from Planet Earth: Man Looks at the Cosmos, New York: William Morrow & Company, Inc., 1981, ISBN 0-688-00642-6
Jean-Marc Rouvière, Brèves méditations sur la création du monde, L’Harmattan, Paris 2006.
Roos, Matts Introduction to Cosmology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester: 2003.
Hawley, John F. & Katerine A. Holcomb Foundations of Modern Cosmology. Oxford University Press, Oxford: 1998.
Hetherington, Norriss S. Cosmology: Historical, Literary, Philosophical, Religious, and Scientific Perspectives. Garland Publishing, New York: 1993.
Long, Barry. The Origins of Man and the Universe ISBN 0-9508050-6-8
Martinus Thomsen’s The Third Testament is about the explanation of life, everything inside it and the reason (or origin) of it.
Arthur Koestler’s The Sleepwalkers (1959) provides a scholarly study of the history of cosmology from the Chaldeans to Kepler.
Schechner, Sara J. Comets, Popular Culture, and the Birth of Modern Cosmology. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 1997.
Weinberg, Steven, 1992. Dreams of a Final Theory (Pantheon Books, NY) ISBN 0-679-41923-3 – non-technical book.
Weinberg, Steven, 2008, Cosmology (Oxford University Press) ISBN 0198526822 – theoretical textbook.
External links
Look up cosmology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Cosmic Journey: A History of Scientific Cosmology from the American Institute of Physics
Project Cosmology A schematic for the cosmos (3D, interactive unification of scientific schematics)
Introduction to Cosmology David Lyth’s lectures from the ICTP Summer School in High Energy Physics and Cosmology
The Sophia Centre
The Sophia Centre for the Study of Cosmology in Culture, University of Wales Trinity Saint David
The Genesis cosmic chemistry module

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PATRIOT ACT 2012 TWO INTERPRETATIONS? CHECK IT OUT

I have been asked to share the information that anyone can research for themselves about how our American Culture International Relations may be influenced by the Patriot Act.

We have a history of learning from our mistakes.

It appears that we may be mislead by our own words written for our American People into law.

There needs to be an understanding that when lawyers run the country and legal system that there may be a reason to look into the interpretation of the law.

This is what a friend of mine Ms. Abigail Rodriguez a mother of seven and a concerned mother of the state of Florida is concerned about. Abbey is a good woman with a good heart and is doing what she can to understand life here in the United States.

She has pointed out to me that this may be something we should read and respond to here in the USA as concerned citizens.

Most all of us in the USA will want to defend our country against enemies both foreign and domestic.

There is a reason I am advocating for the Ascension Age about awakened awareness of our truth.

What is our truth when it comes to the PATRIOT ACT?

You decide and send me your emails to TJMorrisPublishing@gmail.com and put in the subject line YOUR ARTICLE on PATRIOT ACT (MY TRUTH). Thank you. TJ
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Justice Dept. Is Accused of Misleading Public on Patriot Act …
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by Charlie Savage • in 900 Google+ circles • More by Charlie Savage
New York Times … By CHARLIE SAVAGE. Published: September 21, 2011. E-Mail; Print. Reprints. WASHINGTON — Two United States senators on Wednesday accused the … for the latest political news — from The Times and other top sources. … The Justice Department denied being misleading about the Patriot Act, …
USA Patriot Act News – The New York Times
topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/…patriot_act/index.html
Sep 20, 2009 – News about the USA Patriot Act. Commentary and archival … Although it grants many of the enhancements sought by the Department of Justice, … By CHARLIE SAVAGE … Autopen Is Used to Sign a Bill Into Law, a United States First … Dems Want To Give New Meaning To The Phrase “If It Moves, Tax It” …
Democratic Senators Issue Strong Warning … – The New York Times
http://www.nytimes.com/…/us/…/democratic-senators-warn-about…

by Charlie Savage • in 900 Google+ circles • More by Charlie Savage
Mar 16, 2012 – By CHARLIE SAVAGE … powers under the Patriot Act in a way that would be alarming if the public — or even others in Congress — knew about it. … States.” The Justice Department has argued that disclosing information about its … “This has come as a surprise to us, as we were initially inclined to take the …
Signing statement – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Signing_statement
The U.S. Constitution allows such enactments by default: if the President does … In March 2009, the New York Times cited a different metric, the number of … In Hamdan v. … then a staff attorney in the Justice Department’s Office of Legal Counsel — of a … Wikinews has related news: Bush declares immunity from Patriot Act …
[PDF]
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF …

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Feb 27, 2012 – THE NEW YORK TIMES CO., et al.,. Plaintiffs, v. UNITED STATES … NSD”) of the United States Department of Justice (“DOJ” or “Department”). … 2011, plaintiff New York Times reporter Charlie Savage requested a … authorities that were subject to expiration under section 224 of the USA PATRIOT Act” (the …
[PDF]
FOIA/PA Mail Referral Unit Department of Justice LOC Building …

http://www.aclu.org/files/assets/section_215_foia_final.pdf
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May 31, 2011 – http://www.wired.com/threatleve1/2011/02/patriot-act-notextended/; Charlie Savage,. Battle Looms Over the Patriot Act, N.Y. Times, Sept.
[PDF]
IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF

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IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT. FOR THE DISTRICT OF … Department of Justice’s component, the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Specifically, … DOJ is an “agency” within the meaning of 5 U.S.C. § 552(f). The Expiring … See, e.g., Charlie Savage, Battle Looms Over the Patriot Act, N.Y. TIMES, Sept. 19, 2009 …
[PDF]
The Federal Bureau of Investigation and Terrorism Investigations
http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/R41780.pdf
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FBI through post-9/11 legislation, such as the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001; the ….. Investigations: Legal Background and Recent Amendments, by Charles …. 48 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General, A Review of ….. 82 Charlie Savage, “F.B.I. Focusing on Security Over Ordinary Crime,” New York Times, …
Loss of US Civil Liberties: NSA Wiretapping / Stellar Wind
http://www.historycommons.org › … › Human Rights › Civil Liberties
The Department of Justice had wiretapped, without court warrants, several …… called “the SIMS room,” an acronym of which no one seems to know the meaning. ….. Senate Judiciary Committee member Charles Schumer (D-NY) says in 2007 of ….. Patriot Act (see October 26, 2001), President Bush tells listeners that all US …
Leashing the Surveillance State: How to Reform Patriot Act – Scribd
http://www.scribd.com/…/Leashing-the-Surveillance-State-How-to-Reform-…
May 16, 2011 – Congress should resist recent Justice Department pressure to …. link for the first time, authorizing FISA spying within the United States on any …. for foreign intelligence information,” meaning that “large amounts of … In the 2003 case U.S. v. …… Charlie Savage, “Battle Looms Over the Patriot Act,” New York …
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