New Age – Ascension Age – Golden Age Cosmology – Ace Folklife – History

ACE FOLKLIFE – ASCENSION AGE – GOLDEN AGE OF COSMOLOGY – OMG WWJD FOR REAL?
By: Theresa J. Morris

I would like to introduce that expansion of our minds we may regard as outside of the ALIEN ET BOX. That which we can share as outside of this Omniverse as the ET Creator Deities also known as ALPHA and OMEGA or the Beginning and End. We have all heard of the seven (7) heavens or have we? Universe, Multiverse, Metaverse, Xenoverse, Omniverse, Alphaverse, Omegaverse. The Golden Age of Cosmology is shared with the ACE Folklife common folk of the world.

One may have noticed that the “COMMON FOLK” are those who are in the streets these days uniting for common causes. It is said that there are only 10% classed as the wealthiest in the world while the other 90% is not. Does that mean that there is no middle ground for the middle class?

We share the planet as humanoid sentient intelligent beings and we are all considered one species. Why is it that there has been allowed in the past the corporations with their investors to believe that their CEO should make 550 times that of the common employee? It is not fair and there has to be some changes made in the world of corporate power and greed.

We believe in the social entrepreneurs of the social networks. We also know that it is entrepreneurs of the world that learn to find their passion, go out to create a better world with products and services, find their teams and groups to work on their new projects to be called corporations then go out and find their investors as angels for their investment capital. This is the way it has always been since the world decided to revolve around corporations and then came the stock markets.The alleged oldest commercial corporation in the world, the Stora Kopparberg mining community in Falun, Sweden, obtained a charter from King Magnus Eriksson in 1347. Many European nations chartered corporations to lead colonial ventures, such as theDutch East India Company or the Hudson’s Bay Company, and these corporations came to play a large part in the history of corporate colonialism.
Source(s):
Copied from Wikipedia – link here : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporation#History

Now, we can share the future Ascension Age as the Golden Age of Cosmology and the NEW AGE ACE FOLKLIFE will share our cultural refinements that include the changes to be made in politics and religions. We are seeing a major change among the common folk all over the world.

We are now going to be able to assist the third world countries and many of our churches are about feeding the hungry and educating those who are unable to find education in their lives. This is a time that our fellowship organizations can step up and be counted as the good Samaritans and ask themselves for real what would Jesus do?

ALPHA & OMEGA SYNERGY ENERGY FOR OUR ASCENSION AGE (Golden Age Cosmology)
We all are experiencing our past, present, future as the IMMORTALS of our SOULS!
Those who I am finding out on earth that are humanoids have large holes in their education about who they are, why there are here, what they are to explore, and what will happen to them when they leave earth.

Therefore, I am inclined to share what was sent to me as inspired thoughts about the ASCENSION CENTER and the symbol. For those who believe in ALIENS and ET one might believe that I am a messenger. I believe I am based on my past life and death experiences in this lifetime and my memories of reincarnation. I share what I can as what is now referred to as a Spiritual Teacher or Spiritual Guide. Some believe that Avatars are reincarnated spirits and I tend to agree. There are spiritual avatars and internet avatars and in some ways we are similar. Please share this article with those who believe in the Alien ET Ascension Age. Some of us don’t only believe but we know of our existence as those who are to share parts of ourselves. We know that something wonderful is happening and occurring right now today as in the PRESENT!

We who are called PSYCHICS and REMOTE VIEWERS have all learned to astral travel in a manner of speaking. We can share the various time frames and dimensions we share in space that we call the cosmos. I shall end this with a quote of Carl Sagan’s Cosmos but please take the time to read this article and copy it to your “Hidden Archive Treasure FILES”.

 We are all “IMMORTAL SOULS”  – Ascension Center Organization teachers the continuous process of the expansion of our souls creations. Theresa (Tara) J. Thurmond Morris – Founder of Ascension, ET Spirit, TJ
Alien to our own way of thinking is that which we call the God force also known as the God Particle or ET particle in the cosmos. We of the world that are sharing the word “FUTURISTS” as “SEERS” also enjoy knowing that we can use our “Screen of the mind” or our “PSYCHE”.
I have shared a part of me in three (3) as that which has my signature on what we call creation of websites on the Internet Online which is our cyberspace reality in the cosmos.
1. AscensionCenter.org, 2. ETSpirit.org, 3. TJMorris.org as my contribution to our future Esprit de Corps. I  am choosing to share that which I would normally place on these websites as that which also should be welcomed by Dirk Vander Ploeg of UFO Digest.com.
We share our thoughts and creations on earth and welcome all others who desire to link to us and our creations as websites in cyberspace. Virtual reality is one layer of our existence.

Submitted by Theresa J. Thur… on Sun, 10/23/2011 – 15:35
I would like to introduce that expansion of our minds we may regard as outside of the ALIEN ET BOX. That which we can share as outside of this Omniverse as the ET Creator Deities also known as ALPHA and OMEGA or the Beginning and End. We have all heard of the seven (7) heavens or have we? Those who I am finding out on earth that are humanoids have large holes in their education about who they are, why there are here, what they are to explore, and what will happen to them when they leave earth. Therefore, I am inclined to share what was sent to me as inspired thoughts about the ASCENSION CENTER and the symbol. For those who believe in ALIENS and ET one might believe that I am a messenger. I believe I am based on my past life and death experiences in this lifetime and my memories of reincarnation. I share what I can as what is now referred to as a Spiritual Teacher or Spiritual Guide. Some believe that Avatars are reincarnated spirits and I tend to agree. There are spiritual avatars and internet avatars and in some ways we are similar. Please share this article with those who believe in the Alien ET Ascension Age. Some of us don’t only believe but we know of our existence as those who are to share parts of ourselves. We know that something wonderful is happening and occurring right now today as in the PRESENT!

We who are called PSYCHICS and REMOTE VIEWERS have all learned to astral travel in a manner of speaking. We can share the various time frames and dimensions we share in space that we call the cosmos. I shall end this with a quote of Carl Sagan’s Cosmos but please take the time to read this article and copy it to your “Hidden Archive Treasure FILES”. We are all “IMMORTAL SOULS” TJ

Alien to our own way of thinking is that which we call the God force also known as the God Particle or ET particle in the cosmos. We of the world that are sharing the word “FUTURISTS” as “SEERS” also enjoy knowing that we can use our “Screen of the mind” or our “PSYCHE”.

I have shared a part of me in three (3) as that which has my signature on what we call creation of websites on the Internet Online which is our cyberspace reality in the cosmos.

1. AscensionCenter.org, 2. ETSpirit.org, 3. TJMorris.org as my contribution to our future Esprit de Corps.

I  am choosing to share that which I would normally place on these websites as that which also should be welcomed by Dirk Vander Ploeg of UFO Digest.com.
We share our thoughts and creations on earth and welcome all others who desire to link to us and our creations as websites in cyberspace. Virtual reality is one layer of our existence.
It is time we all gravitate toward our other selves as real-time Avatars in Cyberspace in the WEB online. We are all now realizing we are much more than our physical selves. We can create our thoughts into websites and blogs in space that is electronically engineered in cyberspace that we call the Web on the Internet online. Things are changing and so are we.

Please READ the FOLLOWING in it’s entirety in order to understand more about the PAST-PRESENT-FUTURE of all of us!
That which claims to be both politics and religion are changing in this world and we the people as the common folk are the reason. We can see that the world we live that includes television and the entertainment media is changing along with us. We have interests and now the Internet is recording our interests and our involvement with our Internet is now being archived not only as common groups with similar interests but as individuals. This is also done in space by those we call “ALIENS” and “ET”.
GET READY FOR THE ASCENSION AGE!
THE COSMOS
“I am that I AM” is a famous saying. We can all say and know that as the God Particle Energy in each and everyone of us. However, can we all agree that there is an outside force that flows inside of us all as that which is also called the “I AM”?
Alpha and Omega in Greek is the same as in English saying A and Z in the literal translation of thought and the way we think and surmise on earth. However, we are now learning to accept the new age we call the “ASCENSION AGE” in which we call our way of knowing and becoming awake and aware of our own “Mortality”. Just as Steven Jobs passed on or died at the young “Baby-boomer” age of 57 years, this has left us all confronting our own “Mortality” and “Immortality”.

  ALPHA and OMEGA CREATOR DIETIES of the Alphaverse, and Omegaverse home to our own Omniverse I have been impressed or inspired to share that which has come to me due to questions that I have been asked about our Creator Deities and the Omniverse in which we live. The fact that I thought that I was not allowed to venture further our of my known conscious existence as that of the Omniverse has changed in the last week. I should point out to my readers that if one challenges their minds to look back in the history of my writings on UFO Digest of which I am a contributing syndicated columnist one will find a history of how I have grown in my own particles and waves flux and flows.  I am very happy to report that I now have the awakened awareness that we have that of which I have known in the furthest solar core of my own soul as the Alpha and Omega.  The Alphaverse and Omegaverse to show those who are only into the physical reality of science that there can be seven (7) levels and dimensions to our souls eternal source and life force we presently address as energy and essence. Our energy and essence is expressed in this lifetime as our SPIRIT! We have learned that we all share something in common besides our own physical makeup as humanoids with a head, trunk, and limbs. We have a brain that allows us to think for ourselves. Inside our brain and inside our mind also exists our own awareness of life that we call our conscious awareness of the fact that we are alive. Some of us are only thinking about that which we can see, feel, touch, taste, hear, and smell with what we are told are our five (5) senses. We now know that our emotional state of being with our nervous system in tact allows us to also understand and react to the outside stimulus we encounter on a daily basis. It has now come to the attention of this one person also known as a humanoid sentient intelligent being that we are much, much more than what we perceive. We are all the creations that are here to explore our way back to the creator deities of both Alpha and Omega.

Alpha is the male energy and Omega is the female energy that we are all created with and sent in tachyon energy as the strongest force that is now not understood.  The Alpha wraps around the Omniverse. The Omega is the entire womb of that which we call Alphaverse and Omniverse in one manner of thinking in the Physical Cosmology. In the Religious Cosmology the Alphaverse is the outer creation of the Omniverse, as well as, the Omega is the outer creation of the Omniverse.  

 We now are in the quandary as to which came first the chicken or the egg. We need both in order to understand the other. Therefore we are now at the crossroads in Quantum Physics and the study of Quantum Entanglement with what we call the Higgs-Boson Theory which is only one of many new theories of everything.

(The theoretical ‘God’ particle might have a mass between 120 and 140GeV – looked much less conclusive among new statistics received from the experiment. Guido Tonelli, spokesman for the Compact Muon Solenoid Detector, a huge particle detector at CERN employing 3,600 scientists, told the BBC’s Today programme this week, ‘If we exclude the existence of the Higgs this will be a major discovery – it would completely review our vision of nature.’) One of the biggest questions in science – does ‘the God particle’ exist? – is likely to be answered by the end of next year, it was claimed yesterday.

The Higgs boson, nicknamed the God particle, is theoretically responsible for mass, without which there would be no gravity and no universe. Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2037722/God-particle-goes-missing-Higgs-boson-exist-say-Hadron-Collider-scientists.html#ixzz1bdNjmchW

No one being  can create that which gives us the spirit and soul. We can clone animals but do they have the same soul content makeup of the humanoids? Please begin updating your information on our COMMON and PRACTICAL history of the past way we have been programmed. We will now all be able to become more as we learn to receive divine revelations from that which we call the alpha and omega forces direct.

Father Alpha and Mother Omega which is inside us all as both a male and female energy entity.

 We will learn some new ways to be, do, have, think, exist, and what we thought in the past will now become history in various forms. We share our Metaphysical, Physical, and Religious Cosmology in our ACE FOLKLIFE on earth.

The Alpha and Omega allows us to now know that “ALIEN CIVILIZATIONS EXIST!”

CDM or Lambda-CDM is an abbreviation for Lambda-Cold Dark Matter, which is also known as the cold dark matter model with dark energy. It is frequently referred to as the standard model of big bang cosmology, since it attempts to explain: the existence and structure of the cosmic microwave background the large scale structure of galaxy clusters the distribution of hydrogen, helium, deuterium and lithium the accelerating expansion of the universe observed in the light from distant galaxies and supernovae.

 It is the simplest model that is in general agreement with observed phenomena. Creator Deity -Metaphysical Cosmology(Physical Cosmology & Religious Cosmology)Main article: Cosmology (metaphysics)In philosophy and metaphysics, cosmology deals with the world as the totality of space, time and all phenomena. Historically, it has had quite a broad scope, and in many cases was founded in religion. The ancient Greeks did not draw a distinction between this use and their model for the cosmos.

However, in modern use it addresses questions about the Universe which are beyond the scope of science. It is distinguished from religious cosmology in that it approaches these questions using philosophical methods (e.g. dialectics). Modern metaphysical cosmology tries to address questions such as:

What is the origin of the Universe?
What is its first cause? Is its existence necessary? (see monism, pantheism, emanationism and creationism)
What are the ultimate material components of the Universe? (see mechanism, dynamism, hylomorphism, atomism)
What is the ultimate reason for the existence of the Universe? Does the cosmos have a purpose? (see teleology)Does the existence of consciousness have a purpose? How do we know what we know about the totality of the cosmos? Does cosmological reasoning reveal metaphysical truths?

A creator deity is a deity responsible for the creation of the world (or universe). In monotheism, the single God is necessarily also the creator deity, while polytheistic traditions may or may not have creator deities. A number of monolatristic traditions separate a secondary creator from a primary transcendent being, identified as a primary creator.

 Cosmology is the discipline that deals with the origin, structure, and space-time relationships of the universe or a theory or doctrine describing the natural order of the universe .Cosmologists study the universe as a whole: its birth, growth, shape, size and eventual fate. Modern cosmology is dominated by the Big Bang theory, which brings together observational astronomy and particle physics.

Though the word cosmology is recent (first used in 1730 in Christian Wolff’s (Cosmologia Generalis), the study of the universe has a long history involving science, philosophy, esotericism, metaphysics, and religion. (See Cosmogony for the study of origins of the Universe and Cosmography for the features of the Universe.) Physical cosmology, as a branch of astronomy, is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its formation and evolution.

For most of human history, it was a branch of metaphysics and religion. Cosmology as a science originated with the Copernican principle, which implies that celestial bodies obey identical physical laws to those on Earth, and Newtonian mechanics, which first allowed us to understand those laws. Physical cosmology, as it is now understood, began with the twentieth century development of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity and better astronomical observations of extremely distant objects.

These advances made it possible to speculate about the origin of the universe, and allowed scientists to establish the Big Bang Theory as the leading cosmological model. Some researchers still advocate a handful of alternative cosmologies; however, cosmologists generally agree that the Big Bang theory best explains observations.

Cosmology draws heavily on the work of many disparate areas of research in physics. Areas relevant to cosmology include particle physics experiments and theory, including string theory, astrophysics, general relativity, and plasma physics. Thus, cosmology unites the physics of the largest structures in the universe with the physics of the smallest structures in the universe.

 We now are in the quandary as to which came first the chicken or the egg. We need both in order to understand the other.

Therefore we are now at the crossroads in Quantum Physics and the study of Quantum Entanglement with what we call the Higgs-Boson Theory which is only one of many new theories of everything. (The theoretical ‘God’ particle might have a mass between 120 and 140GeV – looked much less conclusive among new statistics received from the experiment. Guido Tonelli, spokesman for the Compact Muon Solenoid Detector, a huge particle detector at CERN employing 3,600 scientists, told the BBC’s Today programme this week, ‘If we exclude the existence of the Higgs this will be a major discovery – it would completely review our vision of nature.’) One of the biggest questions in science – does ‘the God particle’ exist? – is likely to be answered by the end of next year, it was claimed yesterday.

The Higgs boson, nicknamed the God particle, is theoretically responsible for mass, without which there would be no gravity and no universe. Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2037722/God-particle-goes-missing-Higgs-boson-exist-say-Hadron-Collider-scientists.html#ixzz1bdNjmchW  No one being  can create that which gives us the spirit and soul. We can clone animals but do they have the same soul content makeup of the humanoids? Please begin updating your information on our COMMON and PRACTICAL history of the past way we have been programmed. We will now all be able to become more as we learn to receive divine revelations from that which we call the alpha and omega forces direct.

Father Alpha and Mother Omega which is inside us all as both a male and female energy entity. We will learn some new ways to be, do, have, think, exist, and what we thought in the past will now become history in various forms. We share our Metaphysical, Physical, and Religious Cosmology in our ACE FOLKLIFE on earth. The Alpha and Omega allows us to now know that “ALIEN CIVILIZATIONS EXIST!” CDM or Lambda-CDM is an abbreviation for Lambda-Cold Dark Matter, which is also known as the cold dark matter model with dark energy.

It is frequently referred to as the standard model of big bang cosmology, since it attempts to explain:
the existence and structure of the cosmic microwave
 Background:
 The large scale structure of galaxy clusters
The distribution of hydrogen, helium, deuterium and lithium
The accelerating expansion of the universe observed in the light from distant galaxies and supernovae

It is the simplest model that is in general agreement with observed phenomena. Creator Deity -Metaphysical Cosmology(Physical Cosmology & Religious Cosmology)Main article: Cosmology (metaphysics)In philosophy and metaphysics, cosmology deals with the world as the totality of space, time and all phenomena. Historically, it has had quite a broad scope, and in many cases was founded in religion. The ancient Greeks did not draw a distinction between this use and their model for the cosmos. However, in modern use it addresses questions about the Universe which are beyond the scope of science. It is distinguished from religious cosmology in that it approaches these questions using philosophical methods (e.g. dialectics). Modern metaphysical cosmology tries to address questions such as:

What is the origin of the Universe? What is its first cause? Is its existence necessary? (see monism, pantheism, emanationism and creationism)

What are the ultimate material components of the Universe? (see mechanism, dynamism, hylomorphism, atomism)What is the ultimate reason for the existence of the Universe? Does the cosmos have a purpose? (see teleology)Does the existence of consciousness have a purpose? How do we know what we know about the totality of the cosmos? Does cosmological reasoning reveal metaphysical truths?

A creator deity is a deity responsible for the creation of the world (or universe). In monotheism, the single God is necessarily also the creator deity, while polytheistic traditions may or may not have creator deities. A number of monolatristic traditions separate a secondary creator from a primary transcendent being, identified as a primary creator.

 Cosmology is the discipline that deals with the origin, structure, and space-time relationships of the universe or a theory or doctrine describing the natural order of the universe .Cosmologists study the universe as a whole: its birth, growth, shape, size and eventual fate. Modern cosmology is dominated by the Big Bang theory, which brings together observational astronomy and particle physics.

Though the word cosmology is recent (first used in 1730 in Christian Wolff’s (Cosmologia Generalis), the study of the universe has a long history involving science, philosophy, esotericism, metaphysics, and religion. (See Cosmogony for the study of origins of the Universe and Cosmography for the features of the Universe.) Physical cosmology, as a branch of astronomy, is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its formation and evolution. For most of human history, it was a branch of metaphysics and religion. Cosmology as a science originated with the Copernican principle, which implies that celestial bodies obey identical physical laws to those on Earth, and Newtonian mechanics, which first allowed us to understand those laws.

Physical cosmology, as it is now understood, began with the twentieth century development of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity and better astronomical observations of extremely distant objects. These advances made it possible to speculate about the origin of the universe, and allowed scientists to establish the Big Bang Theory as the leading cosmological model. Some researchers still advocate a handful of alternative cosmologies; however, cosmologists generally agree that the Big Bang theory best explains observations.

Cosmology draws heavily on the work of many disparate areas of research in physics. Areas relevant to cosmology include particle physics experiments and theory, including string theory, astrophysics, general relativity, and plasma physics. Thus, cosmology unites the physics of the largest structures in the universe with the physics of the smallest structures in the universe.
History of physical cosmology.(See also: Timeline of cosmology and List of cosmologists)

Modern cosmology developed along tandem tracks of theory and observation.

In 1915, Albert Einstein formulated his theory of general relativity, which provided a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time. At the time, physicists believed in a perfectly static universe that had no beginning or end. Einstein added a cosmological constant to his theory in order to force it to model a static universe containing matter. This so-called Einstein universe is, however, unstable; it will eventually start expanding or contracting. The cosmological solutions of general relativity were found by Alexander Friedmann, whose equations describe the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe, which may expand or contract.

In the 1910s, Vesto Slipher (and later Carl Wilhelm Wirtz) interpreted the red shift of spiral nebulae as a Doppler shift that indicated they were receding from Earth. However, it is difficult to determine the distance to astronomical objects.

 One way is to compare the physical size of an object to its angular size, but a physical size must be assumed to do this. Another method is to measure the brightness of an object and assume an intrinsic luminosity, from which the distance may be determined using the inverse square law. Due to the difficulty of using these methods, they did not realize that the nebulae were actually galaxies outside our own Milky Way, nor did they speculate about the cosmological implications.

In 1927, the Belgian Roman Catholic priest Georges Lemaître independently derived the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker equations and proposed, on the basis of the recession of spiral nebulae, that the universe began with the “explosion” of a “primeval atom”—which was later called the Big Bang.

In 1929, Edwin Hubble provided an observational basis for Lemaître’s theory. Hubble showed that the spiral nebulae were galaxies by determining their distances using measurements of the brightness of Cepheid variable stars. He discovered a relationship between the redshift of a galaxy and its distance. He interpreted this as evidence that the galaxies are receding from Earth in every direction at speeds directly proportional to their distance.
 This fact is now known as Hubble’s law, though the numerical factor Hubble found relating recessional velocity and distance was off by a factor of ten, due to not knowing at the time about different types of Cepheid variables. Given the cosmological principle, Hubble’s law suggested that the universe was expanding. There were two primary explanations put forth for the expansion of the universe. One was Lemaître’s Big Bang theory, advocated and developed by George Gamow.

The other possibility was Fred Hoyle’s steady state model in which new matter would be created as the galaxies moved away from each other. In this model, the universe is roughly the same at any point in time.

For a number of years the support for these theories was evenly divided. However, the observational evidence began to support the idea that the universe evolved from a hot dense state.

The discovery of the cosmic microwave background in 1965 lent strong support to the Big Bang model, and since the precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background by the Cosmic Background Explorer in the early 1990s, few cosmologists have seriously proposed other theories of the origin and evolution of the cosmos. One consequence of this is that in standard general relativity, the universe began with a singularity, as demonstrated by Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose in the 1960s.Light elements, primarily hydrogen and helium, were created in the Big Bang. These light elements were spread too fast and too thinly in the Big Bang process (see nucleosynthesis) to form the most stable medium-sized atomic nuclei, like iron and nickel.

This fact allows for later energy release, as such intermediate-sized elements are formed in our era. The formation of such atoms powers the steady energy-releasing reactions in stars, and also contributes to sudden energy releases, such as in novae. Gravitational collapse of matter into black holes is also thought to power the most energetic processes, generally seen at the centers of galaxies (see quasars and in general active galaxies).

Cosmologists are still unable to explain all cosmological phenomena purely on the basis of known conventional forms of energy, for example those related to the accelerating expansion of the universe, and therefore invoke a yet unexplored form of energy called dark energy[2] to account for certain cosmological observations. One hypothesis is that dark energy is the energy of virtual particles (which mathematically must exist in vacuum due to the uncertainty principle).

There is no unambiguous way to define the total energy of the universe in the current best theory of gravity, general relativity. As a result it remains controversial whether one can meaningfully say that total energy is conserved in an expanding universe. For instance, each photon that travels through intergalactic space loses energy due to the redshift effect.

This energy is not obviously transferred to any other system, so seems to be permanently lost. Nevertheless some cosmologists insist that energy is conserved in some sense.

Thermodynamics of the universe is a field of study to explore which form of energy dominates the cosmos – relativistic particles which are referred to as radiation, or non-relativistic particles which are referred to as matter. The former are particles whose rest mass is zero or negligible compared to their energy, and therefore move at the speed of light or very close to it; the latter are particles whose kinetic energy is much lower than their rest mass and therefore move much slower than the speed of light.

As the universe expands, both matter and radiation in it become diluted. However, the universe also cools down, meaning that the average energy per particle is getting smaller with time. Therefore the radiation becomes weaker, and dilutes faster than matter. Thus with the expansion of the universe radiation becomes less dominant than matter. In the very early universe radiation dictates the rate of deceleration of the universe’s expansion, and the universe is said to be ‘radiation dominated’. At later times, when the average energy per photon is roughly 10 eV and lower, matter dictates the rate of deceleration and the universe is said to be ‘matter dominated’.

The intermediate case is not treated well analytically. As the expansion of the universe continues, matter dilutes even further and the cosmological constant becomes dominant, leading to an acceleration in the universe’s expansion. History of the UniverseSee also: Timeline of the Big Bang Theory.

The history of the universe is a central issue in cosmology. The history of the universe is divided into different periods called epochs, according to the dominant forces and processes in each period. The standard cosmological model is known as the CDM

CDM Model. Equations of Motion

Main article: Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric
The equations of motion governing the universe as a whole are derived from general relativity with a small, positive cosmological constant.

The solution is an expanding universe; due to this expansion the radiation and matter in the universe are cooled down and become diluted. At first, the expansion is slowed down by gravitation due to the radiation and matter content of the universe. However, as these become diluted, the cosmological constant becomes more dominant and the expansion of the universe starts to accelerate rather than decelerate. In our universe this has already happened, billions of years ago.
Particle physics in cosmology

Main article: Particle physics in cosmology

Particle physics is important to the behavior of the early universe, since the early universe was so hot that the average energy density was very high. Because of this, scattering processes and decay of unstable particles are important in cosmology.

As a rule of thumb, a scattering or a decay process is cosmologically important in a certain cosmological epoch if the time scale describing that process is smaller or comparable to the time scale of the expansion of the universe, which is 1 / H with H being the Hubble constant at that time. This is roughly equal to the age of the universe at that time.

Timeline of the Big Bang
Main article: Timeline of the Big Bang

Observations suggest that the universe began around 13.7 billion years ago. Since then, the evolution of the universe has passed through three phases. The very early universe, which is still poorly understood, was the split second in which the universe was so hot that particles had energies higher than those currently accessible in particle accelerators on Earth.

Therefore, while the basic features of this epoch have been worked out in the Big Bang theory, the details are largely based on educated guesses. Following this, in the early universe, the evolution of the universe proceeded according to known high energy physics.

This is when the first protons, electrons and neutrons formed, then nuclei and finally atoms. With the formation of neutral hydrogen, the cosmic microwave background was emitted. Finally, the epoch of structure formation began, when matter started to aggregate into the first stars and quasars, and ultimately galaxies, clusters of galaxies and superclusters formed.

The future of the universe is not yet firmly known, but according to the CDM  model it will continue expanding forever.

Areas of Study:
Below, some of the most active areas of inquiry in cosmology are described, in roughly chronological order. This does not include all of the Big Bang cosmology, which is presented in Timeline of the Big Bang.

The very early universe
While the early, hot universe appears to be well explained by the Big Bang from roughly 10-33 seconds onwards, there are several problems. One is that there is no compelling reason, using current particle physics, to expect the universe to be flat, homogeneous and isotropic (see the cosmological principle). Moreover, grand unified theories of particle physics suggest that there should be magnetic monopoles in the universe, which have not been found.

These problems are resolved by a brief period of cosmic inflation, which drives the universe to flatness, smooths out anisotropies and in homogeneities to the observed level, and exponentially dilutes the monopoles. The physical model behind cosmic inflation is extremely simple, however it has not yet been confirmed by particle physics, and there are difficult problems reconciling inflation and quantum field theory. Some cosmologists think that string theory and brane cosmology will provide an alternative to inflation.

Another major problem in cosmology is what caused the universe to contain more particles than antiparticles. Cosmologists can observationally deduce that the universe is not split into regions of matter and antimatter. If it were, there would be X-rays and gamma rays produced as a result of annihilation, but this is not observed.

This problem is called the baryon asymmetry, and the theory to describe the resolution is called baryogenesis. The theory of baryogenesis was worked out by Andrei Sakharov in 1967, and requires a violation of the particle physics symmetry, called CP-symmetry, between matter and antimatter. Particle accelerators, however, measure too small a violation of CP-symmetry to account for the baryon asymmetry. Cosmologists and particle physicists are trying to find additional violations of the CP-symmetry in the early universe that might account for the baryon asymmetry.

Both the problems of baryogenesis and cosmic inflation are very closely related to particle physics, and their resolution might come from high energy theory and experiment, rather than through observations of the universe.

Big bang Nucleosynthesis
Main article:
 Big bang nucleosynthesis
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is the theory of the formation of the elements in the early universe. It finished when the universe was about three minutes old and its temperature dropped below that at which nuclear fusion could occur. Big Bang nucleosynthesis had a brief period during which it could operate, so only the very lightest elements were produced. Starting from hydrogen ions (protons), it principally produced deuterium, helium-4 and lithium. Other elements were produced in only trace abundances. The basic theory of nucleosynthesis was developed in 1948 by George Gamow, Ralph Asher Alpher and Robert Herman. It was used for many years as a probe of physics at the time of the Big Bang, as the theory of Big Bang nucleosynthesis connects the abundances of primordial light elements with the features of the early universe. Specifically, it can be used to test the equivalence principle, to probe dark matter, and test neutrino physics. Some cosmologists have proposed that Big Bang nucleosynthesis suggests there is a fourth “sterile” species of neutrino.

Cosmic microwave background
Main article: Cosmic microwave background
The cosmic microwave background is radiation left over from decoupling after the epoch of recombination when neutral atoms first formed. At this point, radiation produced in the Big Bang stopped Thomson scattering from charged ions. The radiation, first observed in 1965 by Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson, has a perfect thermal black-body spectrum.

It has a temperature of 2.7 kelvins today and is isotropic to one part in 105. Cosmological perturbation theory, which describes the evolution of slight inhomogeneities in the early universe, has allowed cosmologists to precisely calculate the angular power spectrum of the radiation, and it has been measured by the recent satellite experiments (COBE and WMAP) and many ground and balloon-based experiments (such as Degree Angular Scale Interferometer, Cosmic Background Imager, and Boomerang). One of the goals of these efforts is to measure the basic parameters of the Lambda-CDM model with increasing accuracy, as well as to test the predictions of the Big Bang model and look for new physics. The recent measurements made by WMAP, for example, have placed limits on the neutrino masses.

Newer experiments, such as QUIET and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, are trying to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. These measurements are expected to provide further confirmation of the theory as well as information about cosmic inflation, and the so-called secondary anisotropies, such as the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect and Sachs-Wolfe effect, which are caused by interaction between galaxies and clusters with the cosmic microwave background.

Formation and evolution of large-scale structure
Main articles:
 Large-scale structure of the cosmos, Structure formation, and Galaxy formation and evolution.

Understanding the formation and evolution of the largest and earliest structures (i.e., quasars, galaxies, clusters and superclusters) is one of the largest efforts in cosmology. Cosmologists study a model of hierarchical structure formation in which structures form from the bottom up, with smaller objects forming first, while the largest objects, such as superclusters, are still assembling. One way to study structure in the universe is to survey the visible galaxies, in order to construct a three-dimensional picture of the galaxies in the universe and measure the matter power spectrum. This is the approach of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey.

Another tool for understanding structure formation is simulations, which cosmologists use to study the gravitational aggregation of matter in the universe, as it clusters into filaments, superclusters and voids. Most simulations contain only non-baryonic cold dark matter, which should suffice to understand the universe on the largest scales, as there is much more dark matter in the universe than visible, baryonic matter. More advanced simulations are starting to include baryons and study the formation of individual galaxies. Cosmologists study these simulations to see if they agree with the galaxy surveys, and to understand any discrepancy.

Other, complementary observations to measure the distribution of matter in the distant universe and to probe reionization include:
The Lyman alpha forest, which allows cosmologists to measure the distribution of neutral atomic hydrogen gas in the early universe, by measuring the absorption of light from distant quasars by the gas.

The 21 centimeter absorption line of neutral atomic hydrogen also provides a sensitive test of cosmology.

Weak lensing, the distortion of a distant image by gravitational lensing due to dark matter.

These will help cosmologists settle the question of when and how structure formed in the universe.

Dark Matter
Main article: Dark matter
Evidence from Big Bang nucleosynthesis, the cosmic microwave background and structure formation suggests that about 23% of the mass of the universe consists of non-baryonic dark matter, whereas only 4% consists of visible, baryonic matter.

The gravitational effects of dark matter are well understood, as it behaves like a cold, non-radiative fluid that forms haloes around galaxies. Dark matter has never been detected in the laboratory, and the particle physics nature of dark matter remains completely unknown. Without observational constraints, there are a number of candidates, such as a stable supersymmetric particle, a weakly interacting massive particle, an axion, and a massive compact halo object. Alternatives to the dark matter hypothesis include a modification of gravity at small accelerations (MOND) or an effect from brane cosmology.

Dark energy
Main article: Dark energy

If the universe is flat, there must be an additional component making up 73% (in addition to the 23% dark matter and 4% baryons) of the energy density of the universe. This is called dark energy. In order not to interfere with Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background, it must not cluster in haloes like baryons and dark matter. There is strong observational evidence for dark energy, as the total energy density of the universe is known through constraints on the flatness of the universe, but the amount of clustering matter is tightly measured, and is much less than this. The case for dark energy was strengthened in 1999, when measurements demonstrated that the expansion of the universe has begun to gradually accelerate.

Apart from its density and its clustering properties, nothing is known about dark energy. Quantum field theory predicts a cosmological constant much like dark energy, but 120 orders of magnitude larger than that observed. Steven Weinberg and a number of string theorists (see string landscape) have used this as evidence for the anthropic principle, which suggests that the cosmological constant is so small because life (and thus physicists, to make observations) cannot exist in a universe with a large cosmological constant, but many people find this an unsatisfying explanation.

Other possible explanations for dark energy include quintessence or a modification of gravity on the largest scales. The effect on cosmology of the dark energy that these models describe is given by the dark energy’s equation of state, which varies depending upon the theory. The nature of dark energy is one of the most challenging problems in cosmology.

A better understanding of dark energy is likely to solve the problem of the ultimate fate of the universe. In the current cosmological epoch, the accelerated expansion due to dark energy is preventing structures larger than superclusters from forming. It is not known whether the acceleration will continue indefinitely, perhaps even increasing until a big rip, or whether it will eventually reverse.

Other areas of inquiry:
Cosmologists also study:
Whether primordial black holes were formed in our universe, and what happened to them.

The GZK cutoff for high-energy cosmic rays, and whether it signals a failure of special relativity at high energies the equivalence principle, whether or not Einstein’s general theory of relativity is the correct theory of gravitation, and if the fundamental laws of physics are the same everywhere in the universe.

See also:
Physics portal  String Cosmology
Physical ontology
List of cosmologists
References^ For an overview, see George FR Ellis (2006). “Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology”. In Jeremy Butterfield & John Earman. Philosophy of Physics (Handbook of the Philosophy of Science) 3 volume set. North Holland. pp. 1183ff. arXiv:astro-ph/0602280. ISBN 0444515607.^ Science 20 June 2003:Vol. 300. no. 5627, pp. 1914 – 1918 Throwing Light on Dark Energy, Robert P. Kirshner. Accessed December 2006^ e.g. Liddle, A.. An Introduction to Modern Cosmology. Wiley. ISBN 0-470-84835-9. This argues cogently “Energy is always, always, always conserved.”^ P. Ojeda and H. Rosu (Jun 2006). “Supersymmetry of FRW barotropic cosmologies”. Internat. J. Theoret. Phys. (Springer) 45: 1191–1196.arXiv:gr-qc/0510004. Bibcode 2006IJTP…45.1152R. doi:10.1007/s10773-006-9123-2..

Polytheism
In polytheistic creation myths, the world often comes into being organically, e.g. sprouting from a primal seed, sexually, by miraculous birth(sometimes by parthenogenesis), by hierosgamos, violently, by the slaying of a primeval monster, or artificially, by a divine demiurge or “craftsman”. Sometimes, a god is involved, wittingly or unwittingly, in bringing about creation.

 Examples include:
African contexts:
Mbombo of Bakuba mythology, who vomited out the world upon feeling a stomach ache;
Egyptian mythology
Atum in Ennead, whose semen becomes the primal components of the universe.
Ptah creating the universe by speaking Unkulunkulu in Zulu mythology American contexts:
Nanabozho (Great Rabbit,) Ojibway deity, a shape-shifter and a cocreator of the world.

The goddess Coatlique in Aztec mythology; Viracocha in Inca mythology;
A trickster deity in the form of a Raven in Inuit mythology;

Asian contexts:
El or the Elohim of Canaanite mythology (see Genesis creation myth)Esege Malan in Mongolian mythology, king of the skies Kamuy in Ainu mythology, who built the world on the back of a trout; Izanagi and Izanami in Japanese mythology, who churned the ocean with a spear, creating the islands of Japan

Marduk killing Tiamat in the Babylonian Enuma Elish Vishvakarman in Vedic mythology, responsible for the creation of the universe (while in later Puranic period, Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva are for creation, maintenance and destruction, respectively)European contexts:

The sons of Borr slaying the primeval giant Ymir in Norse mythology Rod in Slavic mythology.

Oceanic contexts:
Ranginui, the Sky Father, and Papatuanuku, the Earth Mother in Maori mythology
Platonic demiurge
Main article:
Demiurge
Further information: Neoplatonism and Gnosticism and Great Architect of the Universe

Plato, in his dialogue Timaeus, describes a creation myth involving a being called the demiurge (“craftsman”). This concept was continued in Neoplatonism and Gnosticism. In Neoplatonism, the demiurge represents the second cause or dyad, after the monad. In Gnostic dualism, the demiurge is an imperfect spirit and possibly evil being, transcended by divine Fullness (Pleroma). Unlike the Judeo-Christian God, Plato’s demiurge is unable to create ex-nihilo.
 Monolatrism
See also:
Brahma Monolatristic traditions would separate a secondary creator from the primary transcendent being, identified as a primary creator. According to Gaudiya Vaishnavas, Brahma is the secondary creator and not the supreme. Vishnu is the primary creator. According to Vaishnavabelief Vishnu creates the basic universal shell and provides all the raw materials and also places the living entities within the material world, fulfilling their own independent will. Brahma works with the materials provided by Vishnu to actually create what are believed to be planets in Puranic terminology, and he supervises the population of them.
Monism
Main article: Monism
Monism has its origin in Hellenistic philosophy as a concept of all things deriving from a single substance or being. Following a long and still current tradition H.P. Owen (1971: 65) claimed that:
“Pantheists are ‘monists’…they believe that there is only one Being, and that all other forms of reality are either modes (or appearances) of it or identical with it.” Although, like Baruch Spinoza, some pantheists may also be monists, and monism may even be essential to some versions of pantheism (like Spinoza’s), not all pantheists are monists. Some are polytheists and some are pluralists; they believe that there are many things and kinds of things and many different kinds of value.[

Not all monists are pantheists. Exclusive monists believe that the universe, the God of the pantheist, simply does not exist. In addition, monists can be Deists, pandeists, theists or panentheists; believing in a monotheistic God that is omnipotent and all-pervading, and both transcendent and immanent. There are monist pantheists and panentheists in Hinduism(particularly in Advaita and Vishistadvaita respectively), Judaism (monistic panentheism is especially found in Kabbalah and Hasidic philosophy), in Christianity (especially among Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Orthodox, and Anglicans) and in Islam (among the Sufis, especially the Bektashi).In Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is the abstract notion of “the Absolute” from which the universe takes its origin and at an ultimate level, all assertions of a distinction between Brahman, other gods and creation are meaningless (monism).

Buddhism
The Buddha explicitly rejects a creator, denies endorsing any views on creation and states that questions on the origin of the world are worthless.

Some gods in Buddhism have the view that they are creators of the world. For example, Baka Brahma. However, Buddha pointed out to them that they do not know the whole extent of the universe (he said they have no knowledge of some of the highest heavens), and further, the spiritual power of the Buddha was greater than the spiritual power of these gods who thought they created the world. One of the Suttasdealing with this subject is the Kevaddha Sutta.

The Buddha said (in DN1 – the Brahmajala Sutta or The Net of Views) that their view of being the creator of the world is a misconception, and that these Brahma-gods actually have a cause which lead their origination (taking birth as a Brahma-god). Buddha even tells how the views concerning ‘creator gods’ originate in the world – through junior Brahma-gods (with a more limited life-span) who, on their passing away, get reborn as a human, and through practicing meditation are able to remember their previous life as a junior god to a Brahma god. Then, he starts to preach this view of a ‘creator god’ to others (see DN1 – the Brahmajala Sutta) starts to preach this view of a ‘creator god’ to others (see DN1 – the Brahmajala Sutta).

Hinduism
Main article: Hindu creationism
Hinduism includes a range of viewpoints about the origin of life, creationism and evolution. The accounts of the emergence of life within the universe vary in description, but classically the god Brahma, from a Trimurti of three gods also including Vishnu and Shiva, is described as performing the act of creation, or more specifically of “propagating life within the universe” with the other two deities being responsible for preservation and destruction (of the universe) respectively.

 Most Hindu schools do not regard the scriptural creation myth as a literal truth, and often the creation stories themselves do not go into specific detail, thus leaving open the possibility of incorporating at least some theories in support of evolution. Some Hindus find support for, or foreshadowing of evolutionary ideas in scriptures, namely the Vedas. An exception to this acceptance is the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), which includes several members who actively oppose “Darwinism” and the modern evolutionary synthesis.

 Jainism
Main article: Jainism and non-creationism
Jainism does not support belief in a creator deity. According to Jain doctrine, the universe and its constituents – soul, matter, space, time, and principles of motion have always existed (a static universe similar to that of Epicureanism and steady state cosmological model). All the constituents and actions are governed by universal natural laws. It is not possible to create matter out of nothing and hence the sum total of matter in the universe remains the same (similar to law of conservation of mass). Similarly, the soul of each living being is unique and uncreated and has existed since beginningless time.

The Jain theory of causation holds that a cause and its effect are always identical in nature and therefore a conscious and immaterial entity like God cannot create a material entity like the universe. Furthermore, according to the Jain concept of divinity, any soul who destroys its karmas and desires, achieves liberation. A soul who destroys all its passions and desires has no desire to interfere in the working of the universe. Moral rewards and sufferings are not the work of a divine being, but a result of an innate moral order in the cosmos; a self-regulating mechanism whereby the individual reaps the fruits of his own actions through the workings of the karmas.

Through the ages, Jain philosophers have adamantly rejected and opposed the concept of creator and omnipotent God and this has resulted in Jainism being labeled as nastika darsana or atheist philosophy by the rival religious philosophies. The theme of non-creationism and absence of omnipotent God and divine grace runs strongly in all the philosophical dimensions of Jainism, including its cosmology, karma,moksa and its moral code of conduct. Jainism asserts a religious and virtuous life is possible without the idea of a creator god.

 Monotheism

Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Sikhism teach that creation is the origin of the universe by the action of God.

Among monotheists it has historically been most commonly believed that living things are God’s creations, and are not the result of a process inherent in originally non-living things, unless this process is designed, initiated, or directed by God; likewise, sentient and intelligent beings are believed to be God’s creation, and did not arise through the development of living but non-sentient beings, except by the intervention of God.

Baha’I

Bahá’í teachings state that God is too great for humans to fully comprehend, or to create a complete and accurate image of, by themselves. Therefore, human understanding of God is achieved through his revelations via his Manifestations. In the Bahá’í religion God is often referred to by titles and attributes (e.g. the All-Powerful, or the All-Loving), and there is a substantial emphasis on monotheism.

Chinese Mythology
Pangu can be interpreted as another creator deity. In the beginning there was nothing in the universe except a formless chaos.

However this chaos began to coalesce into a cosmic egg for eighteen thousand years. Within it, the perfectly opposed principles of yin and yang became balanced and Pangu emerged (or woke up) from the egg. Pangu is usually depicted as a primitive, hairy giant with horns on his head (like the Greek Pan) and clad in furs. Pangu set about the task of creating the world: he separated Yin from Yang with a swing of his giant axe, creating the Earth (murky Yin) and the Sky (clear Yang). To keep them separated, Pangu stood between them and pushed up the Sky. This task took eighteen thousand years, with each day the sky grew ten feet higher, the Earth ten feet wider, and Pangu ten feet taller. In some versions of the story, Pangu is aided in this task by the four most prominent beasts, namely the Turtle, the Qilin, the Phoenix, and the Dragon.

Shangdi is another creator deity, possibly prior to Pangu sharing concepts similar to abrahamic faiths.

After the eighteen thousand years had elapsed, Pangu was laid to rest. His breath became the wind; his voice the thunder; left eye the sun and right eye the moon; his body became the mountains and extremes of the world; his blood formed rivers; his muscles the fertile lands; his facial hair the stars and milky way; his fur the bushes and forests; his bones the valuable minerals; his bone marrows sacred diamonds; his sweat fell as rain; and the fleas on his fur carried by the wind became human beings all over the world.

The distance from Earth and Sky at the end of the 18,000 years would have been 65,700,000 feet, or over 12,443 miles.

The first writer to record the myth of Pangu was Xu Zheng  during the Three Kingdoms  period.

Christianity
See also: Christ the Logos

It is a tenet of Christian faith (Roman Catholic, Orthodox and Protestant) that God is the creator of all things from nothing but by his word, and has made human beings in the Image of God, who by direct inference is also the source of the human soul. Within this broad understanding, however, there are a number of views regarding exactly how this doctrine ought to be interpreted.

Some Christians, mainly evangelical Protestants, particularly Young Earth creationists and Old Earth creationists, interpret Genesis as a historical, accurate, and literal account of creation. Others, in contrast, may understand these to be, not statements of historic fact, but rather spiritual insights more vaguely defined.

While the synoptic gospels do not address the question of creation, the Gospel of John famously begins:

“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being … And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us, and we saw His glory, glory as of the only begotten from the Father, full of grace and truth” <John 1:1-3 and 1:14>.The Epistle to the Hebrews, a book of the New Testament, contains another reference to creation:

“For by faith we understand the worlds were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things which are visible” <Hebrews 11:3>.Thus, in Chalcedonian Christology, Jesus is the Word of God, which was in the beginning and, thus, is uncreated, and hence is God, and consequently identical with the Creator of the world ex nihilo.

The Catholic Church allows for either a literal or allegorical interpretation of Genesis, so as to allow for the possibility of Creation by means of an evolutionary process over great spans of time, otherwise known as theistic evolution. It believes that the creation of the world is a work of God through the Logos, the Word (idea, intelligence, reason and logic).The New Testament claims that God created everything by the eternal Word, Jesus Christ his beloved Son.

In him “all things were created, in heaven and on earth.. . all things were created through him and for him. He is before all things, and in him all things hold together.

Surrounded by a pervasive culture of rationalism, relativism and secularism, the Catholic Church has asserted the primacy of reason in Christian Theology.

In a 1999 lecture at the University of Paris, then-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger said:

“The question is … whether reason, being a chance by-product of irrationality and floating in an ocean of irrationality, is ultimately just as meaningless; or whether the principle that represents the fundamental conviction of Christian faith and of its philosophy remains true: “In principio erat Verbum” — at the beginning of all things stands the creative power of reason. Now as then, Christian faith represents the choice in favor of the priority of reason and of rationality. […] there is no ultimate demonstration that the basic choice involved in Christianity is correct. Yet, can reason really renounce its claim to the priority of what is rational over the irrational, the claim that the Logos is at the ultimate origin of things, without abolishing itself?””Even today, by reason of its choosing to assert the primacy of reason, Christianity remains “enlightened,” and I think that any enlightenment that cancels this choice must, contrary to all appearances, mean, not an evolution, but an involution, a shrinking, of enlightenment.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Followers of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and others within Mormonism, believe that “the elements are eternal” (Doctrine & Covenants § 93:33), and that God (our Father in Heaven–the Creator, Sustainer, and Governor of the Universe)–organized or wrought the creation of the Earth through His Son, Jesus Christ (known as YHWH “Jehovah” of the Old Testament), Who was with Him in the beginning (John 1:1-2, 14): “And by the word of my power have I created them [i.e., the Earth and its many inhabitants], which is mine Only Begotten Son, who is full of grace and truth” (Moses 1:32).

God, the Father, had His Son fashion the eternal elements into the Earth upon which we live over the course of six creative periods that He called “days” (yom in Hebrew, Genesis 1:5)(note, however, that there is nothing to suggest that these six days were either immediately contiguous or of 24 hours duration (indeed, as to the latter, the data suggests that these “days” were rather longer)).

“We will go down,” said Jehovah, “for there is space there, and we will take of these [already existing] materials, and we will make an earth whereon these [i.e., us] may dwell” (Abraham 3:24). But Latter-day Saint theology does not perceive God as the Creator of our Earth alone, but of countless worlds: “worlds without number have I created; and I also created them for mine own purpose; and by the Son I created them, which is mine Only Begotten” (Moses 1:33), ” By him, and through him, and of him, the worlds are and were created, and the inhabitants thereof are begotten sons and daughters unto God” (Doctrine & Covenants 76:24).In short, the Creator is an architect and organizer of pre-existing matter and energy, who constructed our original Earth and other worlds out of this raw material according to the laws and principles He has decreed shall govern such things.

Creationism
 Main article: Creationism
Christian fundamentalism in the USA since the 1930s has pursued Biblical literalist doctrines of “Creationism” as a counter-hypothesis opposing the scientific community, with concepts such as flood geology, creation science and intelligent design proposed as syntheses of Christian creation beliefs and scientific method.

Judaism

Further information: Genesis creation myth
Orthodox Judaism historically affirms that one incorporeal God (self-identified to Moses as Yahweh) is the creator of all things (many references available, see Job 38-41, for example), and that this same one created Adam and Eve personally (directly). They affirm that this Being is an indivisible one, incomparable to any created thing, and immutable.

Islam
Main article: Islamic creationism

According to Islam, God, known in Arabic as Allah, is the all-powerful and all-knowing Creator, Sustainer, Ordainer, and Judge of the universe. Islam puts a heavy emphasis on the conceptualization of God as strictly singular (tawhid). God is unique (wahid) and inherently one (ahad), all-merciful and omnipotent. According to tradition there are 99 Names of God (al-asma al-husna lit. meaning: “The best names”) each of which evoke a distinct attribute of God. All these names refer to Allah, the supreme and all-comprehensive divine name. Among the 99 names of God, the most famous and most frequent of these names are “the Compassionate” (al-rahman) and “the Merciful” (al-rahim).Creation is seen as an act of divine choice and mercy, one with a grand purpose: “And We did not create the heaven and earth and that between them in play.”Rather, the purpose of humanity is to be tested: “Who has created death and life, that He may test you which of you is best in deed. And He is the All-Mighty, the Oft-Forgiving; “Those who pass the test are rewarded with Paradise: “Verily for the Righteous there will be a fulfillment of (the heart’s) desires;

“According to the Islamic teachings, God exists above the heavens and the creation itself. The Qur’an mentions, “He it is Who created for you all that is on earth. Then He Istawa (rose over) towards the heaven and made them seven heavens and He is the All-Knower of everything. “At the same time, God is unlike anything in creation: “There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the Hearing, the Seeing.” and nobody can perceive God in totality: “Vision perceives Him not, but He perceives [all] vision; and He is the Subtle, the Acquainted.” God in Islam is not only majestic and sovereign, but also a personal God: “And indeed We have created man, and We know what his ownself whispers to him. And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein (by Our Knowledge).”Allah commands the believers to constantly remember Him (“O you who have believed, remember Allah with much remembrance”) and to invoke Him alone (“And whoever invokes besides Allah another deity for which he has no proof – then his account is only with his Lord. Indeed, the disbelievers will not succeed.”)Islam teaches that God as referenced in the Qur’an is the only god and the same God worshipped by members of other Abrahamic religions
such as Christianity and Judaism. (29:46).

Sikhism
Main article: Sikh beliefs
One of the biggest responsibilities in Sikhism is to worship God as “The Creator”, termed Waheguru who is shapeless, timeless, and sightless, i.e., Nirankar, Akal, and Alakh Niranjan. The religion only takes after the belief in “One God for All” or Ik Onkar.

MYTHOLOGICAL COSMOLOGY also RELIGIOUS COSMOLOGY
 A Religious cosmology (also mythological cosmology) is a way of explaining the origin, the history and the evolution of the universe based on the religious mythology of a specific tradition. Religious cosmologies usually include an act or process of creation by a creator deity or a larger pantheon.

 Buddhism
Main article: Buddhist cosmology
In Buddhism, the universe comes into existence dependent upon the actions (karma) of its inhabitants. Buddhists posit neither an ultimate beginning or final end to the universe, but see the universe as something in flux, passing in and out of existence, parallel to an infinite number of other universes doing the same thing.

The Buddhist universe consists of a large number of worlds which correspond to different mental states, including passive states of trance, passionless states of purity, and lower states of desire, anger, and fear. The beings in these worlds are all coming into existence or being born, and passing out of existence into other states, or dying. A world comes into existence when the first being in it is born, and ceases to exist, as such, when the last being in it dies. The universe of these worlds also is born and dies, with the death of the last being preceding a universal conflagration that destroys the physical structure of the worlds; then, after an interval, beings begin to be born again and the universe is once again built up. Other universes, however, also exist, and there are higher planes of existence which are never destroyed, though beings that live in them also come into and pass out of existence.

As well as a model of universal origins and destruction, Buddhist cosmology also functions as a model of the mind, with its thoughts coming into existence based on preceding thoughts, and being transformed into other thoughts and other states.

Hebrew Bible
Further information: Biblical cosmology and Genesis creation myth

The main Judeo-Christian religious text, the Bible, opens with a story of creation. The first two chapters of the Book of Genesis describe the creation of heaven and earth by God (called both Elohim and Yhvh) in six successive days.

First day: God creates light (“Let there be light!”)[Gen 1:3]—the first divine command. The light is divided from the darkness, and “day” and “night” are named.

Second day: God creates a firmament (“Let a firmament be…!”)[Gen 1:6–7]—the second command—to divide the waters above from the waters below. The firmament is named “heaven” (shamayim).

Third day: God commands the waters below to be gathered together in one place, and dry land to appear (the third command).[Gen 1:9–10]”earth” and “sea” are named. God commands the earth to bring forth grass, plants, and fruit-bearing trees (the fourth command).

Fourth day: God creates lights in the firmament (the fifth command)[Gen 1:14–15] to separate light from darkness and to mark days, seasons and years. Two great lights are made and the stars.

Fifth day: God commands the sea to “teem with living creatures”, and birds to fly across the heavens (sixth command)[Gen 1:20–21] He creates birds and sea creatures, and commands them to be fruitful and multiply.

Sixth day: God commands the land to bring forth living creatures (seventh command); He makes wild beasts, livestock and “every thing that creepeth upon the earth”.[Gen 1:24–25] He then creates humanity in His “image” and “likeness” (eighth command).[Gen 1:26–28] They are told to “be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it.” The totality of creation is described by God as “very good.”

Seventh day: God, having completed the heavens and the earth, rests from His work, and blesses and sanctifies the seventh day. [Gen 2:2]

Christianity:
See also: Biblical cosmology, Ex nihilo, and Creationism

It is a tenet of Christian faith (Roman Catholic, Orthodox and Protestant) that God is the creator of all things from nothing, and has made human beings in the Image of God, who by direct inference is also the source of the human soul. In Chalcedonian Christology, Jesus is the Word of God, which was in the beginning and, thus, is uncreated, and hence is God, and consequently identical with the Creator of the worldex nihilo.

The New Testament claims that God created everything by the eternal Word, Jesus Christ his beloved Son. In him “All things were created, in heaven and on earth.. . all things were created through him and for him. He is before all things, and in him all things hold together.

Mormon
Main article: Mormon cosmology

Mormon cosmology draws from Biblical cosmology, but has many unique elements provided by Latter Day Saint movement founder Joseph Smith, Jr.

According to Mormon cosmology, there was a pre-existence, better described as a pre-mortal life, in which human spirits were literal children of heavenly parents.

Though their spirits were created, the essential “intelligence” of these spirits is considered eternal, and without beginning. During this pre-existence, two plans were said to have been presented, one championed by Lucifer (Satan) that would have involved loss of moral agency, and another championed by God the Father. When his plan was not accepted, Lucifer is said to have rebelled and taken a third of the hosts of heaven with him to the earth to serve as tempters. According to a plan of salvation as described by God the Father, Jesus would create the earth, under the direction of God the Father, as a place where humanity would be tested.

After the resurrection all men and women except spirits that followed Lucifer and the sons of perdition would be assigned one of three degrees of glory.

Within the highest degree, the Celestial Kingdom, there are three divisions, and those in the highest of these divisions would become gods and goddesses through a process called exaltation or “eternal progression”. Celestial Kingdom, Terrestrial Kingdom, and Telestial Kingdom are the  three divisions of the three degrees of glory.

This would involve having spirit children and populating new worlds.

The Earth’s creation, according to Mormon scripture, was not ex nihilo, but organized from existing matter.

The faith teaches that this earth is just one of many inhabited worlds, and that there are many governing heavenly bodies, including a planet or star Kolob which is said to be nearest the throne of God. According to some Mormon sources, God the Father himself was once like a human, and lived on a planet with his own higher god.

Hindu
Main article: Hindu cosmology
The Hindu cosmology and timeline is the closest to modern scientific timelines and even more which might indicate that the Big Bang is not the beginning of everything but just the start of the present cycle preceded by an infinite number of universes and to be followed by another infinite number of universes.

The Rig Veda questions the origin of the cosmos in: “Neither being (sat) nor non-being was as yet. What was concealed? And where? And in whose protection?…Who really knows? Who can declare it? Whence was it born, and whence came this creation? The devas were born later than this world’s creation, so who knows from where it came into existence? None can know from where creation has arisen, and whether he has or has not produced it. He who surveys it in the highest heavens, he alone knows-or perhaps does not know.” (Rig Veda 10. 129) Large scale structure of the Universe according to one Hindu cosmology. Intermediate neighborhood of the Earth according to one Hindu cosmology.

We have the neighborhood of the Earth according to one Hindu cosmology. The Rig Veda’s view of the cosmos also sees one true divine principle self-projecting as the divine word, Vaak, ‘birthing’ the cosmos that we know, from the

monistic  Hiranyagarbha or Golden Womb. The Hiranyagarbha is alternatively viewed as Brahma, the creator who was in turn created by God, or as God (Brahman) himself.

The universe is considered to constantly expand since creation and disappear into a thin haze after billions of years.

An alternate view is that the universe begins to contract after reaching its maximum expansion limits until it disappears into a fraction of a millimeter

The creation begins anew after billions of years (Solar years) of non-existence.

The puranic view asserts that the universe is created, destroyed, and re-created in an eternally repetitive series of cycles. In Hindu cosmology, a universe endures for about 4,320,000,000 years (one day of Brahma, the creator or kalpa) and is then destroyed by fire or water elements. At this point, Brahma rests for one night, just as long as the day. This process, named pralaya (Cataclysm), repeats for 100 Brahma years (311 Trillion, 40 Billion Human Years) that represents Brahma’s lifespan. It must be noted that Brahma is the creator but not necessarily regarded as God in Hinduism. He is mostly regarded as a creation of God / Brahman.

We are currently believed to be in the 51st year of the present Brahma and so about 156 trillion years have elapsed since He was born as Brahma. After Brahma’s “death”, it is necessary that another 100 Brahma years (311 Trillion, 40 Billion Years) pass until a new Brahma is born and the whole creation begins anew. This process is repeated again and again, forever. Brahma’s day is divided in one thousand cycles (Maha Yuga, or the Great Year).Maha Yuga, during which life, including the human race appears and then disappears, has 71 divisions, each made of 14 Manvantara (1000) years. Each Maha Yuga lasts for 4,320,000 years. Manvantara is Manu’s cycle, the one who gives birth and governs the human race.

Each Maha Yuga consists of a series of four shorter yugas, or ages. The yugas get progressively worse from a moral point of view as one proceeds from one yuga to another. As a result, each yuga is of shorter duration than the age that preceded it.

The current Kali Yuga (Iron Age) began at midnight 17 February / 18 February in 3102 BC in the proleptic Julian calendar.

 Space and time are considered to be maya (illusion).

What looks like 100 years in the cosmos of Brahma could be thousands of years in other worlds, millions of years in some other worlds and 311 trillion and 40 billion years for our solar system and earth.

Islam
Main articles: Islamic cosmology and Sufi Cosmology

Islam preaches that God, or Allah, created the universe, including Earth’s physical environment and human beings. The highest goal is to visualize the cosmos as a book of symbols for meditation and contemplation for spiritual upliftment or as a prison from which the human soul must escape to attain true freedom in the spiritual journey to God. Islam elaborates on cosmology in many instances. A modern English translation of the Quran describes the creation of the universe as follows:”We have built the heaven with might, and We are Steadily Expanding it.”51:47  Earlier English translations like for example Ahmed Ali, The Noble Qur’an, Pickthal, Shakir and Yusuf Ali never specify the expansion as a process that is still going on so it seems to be an addition after the expansion of the universe became a generally accepted scientific fact.

Below here there are some other citations from the Quran on cosmology.

“Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before we clove them asunder? We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?” 21:30 Yusuf Ali translation

“The Day that We roll up the heavens like a scroll rolled up for books (completed),- even as We produced the first creation, so shall We produce a new one: a promise We have undertaken: truly shall We fulfil it.” 21:104 Yusuf Ali translation

Jainism
Main article: Jain cosmology

Jain cosmology considers the loka, or universe, as an uncreated entity, existing since infinity, having no beginning or an end. Jain texts
describe the shape of the universe as similar to a man standing with legs apart and arm resting on his waist. This Universe, according to Jainism, is narrow at the top, broad at the middle and once again becomes broad at the bottom.

Mahapura’a of Acarya Jinasena is famous for this quote: “Some foolish men declare that a creator made the world. The doctrine that the world was created is ill advised and should be rejected. If God created the world, where was he before the creation? If you say he was transcendent then and needed no support, where is he now? How could God have made this world without any raw material?

If you say that he made this first, and then the world, you are faced with an endless regression.”

Taoism
Main articles: Chinese creation myth and Tian
The cosmology of Taoism beliefs is a complex mixture of different beliefs. There is a “primordial universe” Wuji (philosophy), and Hongjun Laozu, water or qi. It transformed into Taiji and multiplied into everything.

The Pangu legend tells a formless chaos coalesced into a cosmic egg. Pangu emerged (or woke up) and separated Yin from Yang with a swing of his giant axe, creating the Earth (murky Yin) and the Sky (clear Yang). To keep them separated, Pangu stood between them and pushed up the Sky. After Pangu died, he became everything. See also Bahá’í  cosmology
Raelian cosmology
Zoroastrian cosmology

 References:^ CCC Search Result – Paragraph # 291^ LDS Church (1995) (“Each [human] is a beloved spirit son or daughter of heavenly parents.”); LDS Church (1997, p. 11) (“Man, as a spirit, was begotten and born of heavenly parents, and reared to maturity in the eternal mansions of the Father.”).^ http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e459?_hi=10&_pos=2^ “This universe is not created nor sustained by anyone; It is self sustaining, without any base or support” “Nishpaadito Na Kenaapi Na Dhritah Kenachichch Sah Swayamsiddho Niradhaaro Gagane Kimtvavasthitah” [Yogasastra of Acarya Hemacandra 4.106] Tr by Dr. A. S. Gopani^ See Hemacandras description of universe in Yogasastra “…Think of this loka as similar to man standing akimbo…”4.103-6

See Also:

Biblical Cosmology,
Brahma Cosmogony,
Cosmological argument,
Cosmology Dating Creation,
Day-Age Creationism
Deism Existence, Gap Creationism,
Great Spirit,
Intelligent designer,
Jainism and non-creationism,
Old Earth Creationism
Tzimtzum
Young Earth Creationism

  The term Alpha and Omega comes from the phrase “I am the alpha and the omega” (Koiné Greek: an appellation of Jesus in the Book of Revelation (verses 1:8, 21:6, and 22:13). In the Book of Revelation, it reads “I am the Alpha and Omega, the first and the last.”The first part of this phrase (“I am the Alpha and Omega”) is first found in Chapter 1 verse 8, and is found in every manuscript of Revelation that has 1v8. Several later manuscripts repeat “I am the Alpha and Omega” in 1v11 too, but it does not receive support here from most of the oldest manuscripts, including the Alexandrine, Sinaitic, and Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus. It is, therefore, omitted in some modern translations. Scholar Robert Young stated, with regards to “I am the Alpha and Omega” in 1v11, that the “oldest MSS. omit” it.

Its meaning is found in the fact that alpha (?) and omega (O) are respectively the first and last letters of the Classical (Ionic) Greek alphabet. This would be similar to referring to someone in English as the “A and Z”. Thus, twice when the title appears it is further clarified with the additional title “the beginning and the end” (21:6, 22:13).
Though many commentators and dictionaries apply this title both to God and to Christ, some secular sources argue otherwise. Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament (1974) claims: “It cannot be absolutely certain that the writer meant to refer to the Lord Jesus specifically here… There is no real incongruity in supposing, also, that the writer here meant to refer to God as such.” However, most Christian denominations teach that it does apply to Jesus and God as they are one; Revelation Chapter 22 has Jesus himself saying the words: “I am the Alpha and Omega, the First and the Last”.Therefore the letters Alpha and Omega in juxtaposition are often used as a Christian visual symbol (see examples).

The letters were shown hanging from the arms of the cross in Early Christian art, and some crosses in precious metal have formed letters hanging in this way. In fact, despite always being in Greek, the letters became more common in Western than Eastern Orthodox Christian art. They are often shown to the left and right of Christ’s head, sometimes within his halo, where they take the place of the christogram used in Orthodox art.

This symbol was suggested by the Apocalypse, where many believe that Christ, as well as the Father, is “the First and the Last” (ii, 8); “the Alpha and Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end” (cf., xxii, 13; i, 8). Clement of Alexandria (2nd century, philosopher and commentator on pagan and Christian information) speaks of the Word as “the Alpha and the Omega of Whom alone the end becomes beginning, and ends again at the original beginning without any break” (Stromata, IV, 25).

Tertullian (lawyer, theologian) also alludes to Christ as the Alpha and Omega (De Monogamiâ, v), and from Prudentius (Cathemer., ix, 10) we learn that in the fourth century the interpretation of the apocalyptic letters was still the same: “Alpha et Omega cognominatus, ipse fons et clausula, Omnium quae sunt, fuerunt, quaeque post futura sunt.” It was, however, in the monuments of early Christianity that the symbolic Alpha and Omega had their greatest vogue.

This phrase is interpreted by many Christians to mean that Jesus existed from eternity (as the second person of the Trinity), and will exist eternally. Alpha and omega are the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, signifying that God is “the beginning and the end,” or eternal. The symbols were used in early Christianity and appear in the Roman catacombs.

The Alpha and Omega symbols are often combined with the cross, chi rho, or other Christian symbols.

Judaism

In Rabbinic literature, the word emet (meaning “truth”), one of the names of God in Judaism, has been interpreted as consisting of the first, middle and final letters of the Hebrew alphabet.

Islam
The Qur’an gives al’Awwal meaning “The First” and al’Akhir , meaning “The Last” as two of the names of God: 57:3. Babylonian cosmology

Babylonian literature (1900-1200 BC) Plurality of heavens and earths The Earth and Heavens are a “spatial whole, even one of round shape,” revolving around the “cult-place of the deity”[clarification needed] rather than the Earth,[6] and there is a plurality of heavens and earths. Brahmanda (Hindu Cosmology) Hindu Rigveda(1700–1100 BC) Cyclical or oscillating, Infinite in time The universe sustains for around 311,040,000,000,000 years, or 100 Years of Brahma. There is a smaller period of unmanifestation in around 4 billion years, that is, one Day of Brahma. The universe cycles between expansion and total collapse. After one cycle of the life of Brahma another universe follows for infinity, each of which exists for a time period of 311 trillion 40 billion years. It also speaks of an infinite number of universes at one given point of time. The Universe expanded from a concentrated form, a point called a Bindu. The universe, as a living entity, is bound to the perpetual cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. Atomist universe Anaxagoras (500-428 BC) & later.

Epicurus Infinite in extent – The universe contains only two things: an infinite number of tiny seeds, or atoms, and the void of infinite extent. All atoms are made of the same substance, but differ in size and shape. Objects are formed from atom aggregations and decay back into atoms. Incorporates Leucippus’ principle of causality: “nothing happens at random; everything happens out of reason and necessity.” The universe was not ruled by gods.

Pythagorean universe Philolaus (d. 390 BC) Existence of a “Central Fire” at the center of the Universe. At the center of the Universe is a central fire, around which the Earth, Sun, Moon and planets revolve uniformly.

The Sun revolves around the central fire once a year, the stars are immobile. The earth in its motion maintains the same hidden face towards the central fire, hence it is never seen. This is the first known non-geocentric model of the Universe.[8]Stoic universe Stoics(300 BC – 200 AD) Island universe

The Cosmos is finite and surrounded by an infinite void. It is in a state of flux, as it pulsates in size and periodically passes through upheavals and conflagrations.

Aristotelian universe Aristotle (384-322 BC) Geocentric, static, steady state, finite extent, infinite time Spherical earth is surrounded by concentric celestial spheres. Universe exists unchanged throughout eternity. Contains a fifth element, called aether (later known as quintessence), added to the four Classical elements. Aristarchean universe Aristarchus(circa 280 BC) Heliocentric Earth rotates daily on its axis and revolves annually about the sun in a circular orbit. Sphere of fixed stars is centered about the sun. Seleucian universe Seleucus of Seleucia(circa 190 BC)

Heliocentric Modifications to the Aristarchean universe, with the inclusion of the tide phenomenon to explain heliocentrism.

Ptolemaic model (based on Aristotelian universe) Ptolemy(2nd century AD) Geocentric Universe orbits about a stationary Earth. Planets move in circular epicycles, each having a center that moved in a larger circular orbit (called an eccentric or a deferent) around a center-point near the Earth. The use of equants added another level of complexity and allowed astronomers to predict the positions of the planets.

The most successful universe model of all time, using the criterion of longevity. Almagest (the Great System).

 Aryabhatan model Aryabhata (499) Geocentric or Heliocentric The Earth rotates and the planets move in elliptical orbits, possibly around either the Earth or the Sun. It is uncertain whether the model is geocentric or heliocentric due to planetary orbits given with respect to both the Earth and the Sun. Abrahamic universe Medieval philosophers (500-1200) Finite in time.

 A universe that is finite in time and has a beginning is proposed by the Christian philosopher, John Philoponus, who argues against the ancient Greek notion of an infinite past. Logical arguments supporting a finite universe are developed by the early Muslim philosopher Alkindus, the Jewish philosopher Saadia Gaon and the Muslim theologianAlgazel.

Multiversal cosmology Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209)

Multiverse, multiple worlds & universes There exists an infinite outer space
e beyond the known world, and God has the power to fill the vacuum with an infinite number of universes.

 Maragha models Maragha school(1259–1528) Geocentric Various modifications to Ptolemaic model and Aristotelian universe, including rejection ofequant and eccentrics at Maragheh observatory, and introduction of Tusi-couple by Al-Tusi. Alternative models later proposed, including the first accurate lunar model by Ibn al-Shatir, a model rejecting stationary Earth in favour of Earth’s rotation by Ali Kusçu, and planetary model incorporating “circular inertia” by Al-Birjandi. Nilakanthan model Nilakantha Somayaji (1444–1544)

Geocentric and Heliocentric A universe in which the planets orbit the Sun and the Sun orbits the Earth, similar to the later Tychonic system. Copernican universe Nicolaus Copernicus (1543) Heliocentric The geocentric Maragha model of Ibn al-Shatir adapted to meet the requirements of the ancient heliocentric Aristarchean universe in his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium.

Tychonic system Tycho Brahe(1546–1601) Geocentric and Heliocentric A universe in which the planets orbit the Sun and the Sun orbits the Earth, similar to the earlier Nilakanthan model. Static Newtonian Sir Isaac Newton(1642–1727) Static(evolving), steady state, infinite Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle. Matter on the large scale is uniformly distributed. Gravitationally balanced but unstable.

Cartesian Vortex universe René Descartes 17th Century Static (evolving), steady state, Infinite
A system of huge swirling whirlpools of aethereal or fine matter produces what we would call gravitational effects. His vacuum was not empty. All space was filled with matter that swirled around in large and small vortices.

Hierarchical universe Immanuel Kant,
Johann Lambert 18th century Static (evolving), steady state, infinite Matter is clustered on ever larger scales of hierarchy. Matter is endlessly being recycled. Einstein Universe with a cosmological constant Albert Einstein1917 Static (nominally). Bounded (finite) “Matter without motion.” Contains uniformly distributed matter. Uniformly curved spherical space; based on Riemann’s hypersphere. Curvature is set equal to ?. In effect ? is equivalent to a repulsive force which counteracts gravity. Unstable. De Sitter universe Willem de Sitter1917 Expanding flat space.
Steady state. ? > 0 “Motion without matter.” Only apparently static. Based on Einstein’s General Relativity. Space expands with constant acceleration. Scale factor (radius of universe) increases exponentially, i.e. constant inflation. MacMillan universe William Duncan MacMillan 1920s Static &steady state.

New matter is created from radiation. Starlight is perpetually recycled into new matter particles.

Friedmann universe of spherical space Alexander Friedmann 1922 Spherical expanding space. k= +1 ; no ? Positive curvature. Curvature constant k = +1Expands then recollapses. Spatially closed (finite).Friedmann universe of hyperbolic space Alexander Friedmann 1924 Hyperbolic expanding space.

k= -1 ; no ? Negative curvature. Said to be infinite (but ambiguous). Unbounded. Expands forever.

Dirac large numbers hypothesis Paul Dirac 1930s Expanding Demands a large variation in G, which decreases with time. Gravity weakens as universe evolves.

Friedmann zero-curvature, a.k.a. the Einstein-DeSitter universe Einstein & DeSitter 1932 Expanding flat space.
k= 0 ; ? = 0 Critical density Curvature constant k = 0. Said to be infinite (but ambiguous). ‘Unbounded cosmos of limited extent.’ Expands forever. ‘Simplest’ of all known universes. Named after but not considered by Friedmann. Has a deceleration term q =½ which means that its expansion rate slows down.

BIG BANG THEORY = Only One Theory!

The original Big Bang. a.k.a. Friedmann-Lemaître Model Georges Lemaître1927-29 Expansion? > 0 ? > |Gravity| ? is positive and has a magnitude greater than Gravity. Universe has initial high density state (‘primeval atom’). Followed by a two stage expansion. ? is used to destabilize the universe. (Lemaître is considered to be the father of the big bang model.)Oscillating universe(a.k.a. Friedmann-Einstein; was latter’s 1st choice after rejecting his own 1917 model) Favored by Friedmann 1920s Expanding and contracting in cycles Time is endless and beginningless; thus avoids the beginning-of-time paradox.

Perpetual cycles of big Bang followed by the big Crunch.  Eddington Arthur Eddington1930 First Static then Expands Static Einstein 1917 universe with its instability disturbed into expansion mode; with relentless matter dilution becomes a DeSitter universe.

 Dominates gravity.
Milne universe of kinematic relativity Edward Milne, 1933, 1935;William H. McCrea, 1930s Kinematic expansion with NO space expansion Rejects general relativity and the expanding space paradigm. Gravity not included as initial assumption. Obeys cosmological principle & rules of special relativity. The Milne expanding universe consists of a finite spherical cloud of particles (or galaxies) that expands WITHIN flat space which is infinite and otherwise empty.

It has a center and a cosmic edge (the surface of the particle cloud) which expands at light speed. His explanation of gravity was elaborate and unconvincing. For instance, his universe has an infinite number of particles, hence infinite mass, within a finite cosmic volume.

Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker class of models Howard Robertson, Arthur Walker, 1935 Uniformly expanding Class of universes that are homogenous and isotropic. Spacetime separates into uniformly curved space and cosmic time common to all co-moving observers. The formulation system is now known as the FLRW or Robertson-Walker metrics of cosmic time and curved space.

Steady-state expanding (Bondi & Gold) Herman Bondi,Thomas Gold1948 Expanding, steady state, infinite Matter creation rate maintains constant density. Continuous creation out of nothing from nowhere.

Exponential expansion.
Deceleration term q = -1.Steady-state expanding (Hoyle) Fred Hoyle 1948 Expanding, steady state; but unstable Matter creation rate maintains constant density. But since matter creation rate must be exactly balanced with the space expansion rate the system is unstable.  Ambiplasma Hannes Alfvén1965 Oskar Klein Cellular universe, expanding by means of matter-antimatter annihilation Based on the concept of plasma cosmology. The universe is viewed as meta-galaxiesdivided by double layers —hence its bubble-like nature. Other universes are formed from other bubbles. Ongoing cosmic matter-antimatter annihilations keep the bubbles separated and moving apart preventing them from interacting. Brans-Dicke Carl H. Brans;Robert H. Dicke Expanding Based on Mach’s principle. G varies with time as universe expands. “But nobody is quite sure what Mach’s principle actually means.”

Cosmic inflation
 Alan Guth 1980 Big Bang with modification to solve horizon problem and flatness problem. Based on the concept of hot inflation. The universe is viewed as a multiple quantum flux —hence its bubble-like nature. Other universes are formed from other bubbles. Ongoing cosmic expansion kept the bubbles separated and moving apart preventing them from interacting. Eternal Inflation (a multiple universe model) Andreï Linde 1983 Big Bang with cosmic inflation

A multiverse, based on the concept of cold inflation, in which inflationary events occur at random each with independent initial conditions; some expand into bubble universes supposedly like our entire cosmos. Bubbles nucleate in a spacetime foam.  Physical cosmology, as a branch of astronomy, is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its formation and evolution. For most of human history, it was a branch of metaphysics and religion.

Cosmology
as a science originated with the Copernican principle, which implies that celestial bodies obey identical physical laws to those on Earth, and Newtonian mechanics, which first allowed us to understand those laws. Physical cosmology, as it is now understood, began with the twentieth century development of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity and better astronomical observations of extremely distant objects.  These advances made it possible to speculate about the origin of the universe, and allowed scientists to establish the Big Bang Theory as the leading cosmological model. Some researchers still advocate a handful of alternative cosmologies; however, cosmologists generally agree that the Big Bang theory best explains observations.

Cosmology draws heavily on the work of many disparate areas of research in physics.  Areas relevant to cosmology include particle physics experiments and theory, including string theory, astrophysics, general relativity, and plasma physics. Thus, cosmology unites the physics of the largest structures in the universe with the physics of the smallest structures in the universe. Universal Disciplines In recent times, physics and astrophysics have played a central role in shaping the understanding of the universe through scientific observation and experiment. What is known as physical cosmology shaped through both mathematics and observation the analysis of the whole universe. It is generally understood to begin with the Big Bang combined with cosmic inflation – an expansion of space from which the universe is thought to have emerged ~13.7±0.2×109 (roughly 13.5-13.9 billion) years ago.

Physical cosmologists propose that the history of the universe has been governed entirely by physical laws. Such theories of an impersonal universe governed by physical laws were first proposed by Roger Bacon.

Between the domains of religion and science, stands the philosophical perspective of metaphysical cosmology. This ancient field of study seeks to draw intuitive conclusions about the nature of the universe, man, a supernatural creator and/or their relationships based on the extension of some set of presumed facts borrowed from spiritual experience and/or observation.

Metaphysical cosmology has also been described as the placing of man in the universe in relationship to all other entities. This is exampled by the observation made by Marcus Aurelius of a man’s place in that relationship: “He who does not know what the world is does not know where he is, and he who does not know for what purpose the world exists, does not know who he is, nor what the world is.” Cosmology is often an important aspect of the creation myths of religions that seek to explain the existence and nature of reality. In some cases, views about the creation (cosmogony) and destruction (eschatology) of the universe play a central role in shaping a framework of religious cosmology for understanding humanity’s role in the universe.

A more contemporary distinction between religion and philosophy, esoteric cosmology is distinguished from religion in its less tradition-bound construction and reliance on modern “intellectual understanding” rather than faith, and from philosophy in its emphasis on spirituality as a formative concept. History of Physical Cosmology. See also: Timeline of cosmology and List of cosmologists.

Modern cosmology developed along tandem tracks of theory and observation. In 1915, Albert Einstein formulated his theory of general relativity, which provided a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time. At the time, physicists believed in a perfectly static universe that had no beginning or end. Einstein added a cosmological constant to his theory in order to force it to model a static universe containing matter. This so-called Einstein universe is, however, unstable; it will eventually start expanding or contracting. The cosmological solutions of general relativity were found by Alexander Friedmann, whose equations describe the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe, which may expand or contract.

In the 1910s, Vesto Slipher (and later Carl Wilhelm Wirtz) interpreted the red shift of spiral nebulae as a Doppler shift that indicated they were receding from Earth. However, it is difficult to determine the distance to astronomical objects. One way is to compare the physical size of an object to its angular size, but a physical size must be assumed to do this. Another method is to measure the brightness of an object and assume an intrinsic luminosity, from which the distance may be determined using the inverse square law. Due to the difficulty of using these methods, they did not realize that the nebulae were actually galaxies outside our own Milky Way, nor did they speculate about the cosmological implications. In 1927, the Belgian Roman Catholic priest Georges Lemaître independently derived the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker equations and proposed, on the basis of the recession of spiral nebulae, that the universe began with the “explosion” of a “primeval atom”—which was later called the Big Bang. In 1929, Edwin Hubble provided an observational basis for Lemaître’s theory. Hubble showed that the spiral nebulae were galaxies by determining their distances using measurements of the brightness of Cepheid variable stars. He discovered a relationship between the redshift of a galaxy and its distance. He interpreted this as evidence that the galaxies are receding from Earth in every direction at speeds directly proportional to their distance. This fact is now known as Hubble’s law, though the numerical factor Hubble found relating recessional velocity and distance was off by a factor of ten, due to not knowing at the time about different types of Cepheid variables.

Given the cosmological principle, Hubble’s law suggested that the universe was expanding. There were two primary explanations put forth for the expansion of the universe. One was Lemaître’s Big Bang theory, advocated and developed by George Gamow. The other possibility was Fred Hoyle’s steady state model in which new matter would be created as the galaxies moved away from each other. In this model, the universe is roughly the same at any point in time.

For a number of years the support for these theories was evenly divided. However, the observational evidence began to support the idea that the universe evolved from a hot dense state. The discovery of the cosmic microwave background in 1965 lent strong support to the Big Bang model, and since the precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background by the Cosmic Background Explorer in the early 1990s, few cosmologists have seriously proposed other theories of the origin and evolution of the cosmos. One consequence of this is that in standard general relativity, the universe began with a singularity, as demonstrated by Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose in the 1960s.

Light elements, primarily hydrogen and helium, were created in the Big Bang. These light elements were spread too fast and too thinly in the Big Bang process (see nucleosynthesis) to form the most stable medium-sized atomic nuclei, like iron and nickel. This fact allows for later energy release, as such intermediate-sized elements are formed in our era.

The formation of such atoms powers the steady energy-releasing reactions in stars, and also contributes to sudden energy releases, such as in novae. Gravitational collapse of matter into black holes is also thought to power the most energetic processes, generally seen at the centers of galaxies (see quasars and in general active galaxies).Cosmologists are still unable to explain all cosmological phenomena purely on the basis of known conventional forms of energy, for example those related to the accelerating expansion of the universe, and therefore invoke a yet unexplored form of energy called dark energy to account for certain cosmological observations.

One hypothesis is that dark energy is the energy of virtual particles (which mathematically must exist in vacuum due to the uncertainty principle).There is no unambiguous way to define the total energy of the universe in the current best theory of gravity, general relativity. As a result it remains controversial whether one can meaningfully say that total energy is conserved in an expanding universe.

For instance, each photon that travels through intergalactic space loses energy due to the redshift effect. This energy is not obviously transferred to any other system, so seems to be permanently lost. Nevertheless some cosmologists insist that energy is conserved in some sense.

Thermodynamics of the universe is a field of study to explore which form of energy dominates the cosmos – relativistic particles which are referred to as radiation, or non-relativistic particles which are referred to as matter. The former are particles whose rest mass is zero or negligible compared to their energy, and therefore move at the speed of light or very close to it; the latter are particles whose kinetic energy is much lower than their rest mass and therefore move much slower than the speed of light.

As the universe expands, both matter and radiation in it become diluted. However, the universe also cools down, meaning that the average energy per particle is getting smaller with time. Therefore the radiation becomes weaker, and dilutes faster than matter. Thus with the expansion of the universe radiation becomes less dominant than matter. In the very early universe radiation dictates the rate of deceleration of the universe’s expansion, and the universe is said to be ‘radiation dominated’.

At later times, when the average energy per photon is roughly 10 eV and lower, matter dictates the rate of deceleration and the universe is said to be ‘matter dominated’. The intermediate case is not treated well analytically. As the expansion of the universe continues, matter dilutes even further and the cosmological constant becomes dominant, leading to an acceleration in the universe’s expansion. History of the UniverseSee also: Timeline of the Big Bang

The history of the universe is a central issue in cosmology. The history of the universe is divided into different periods called epochs, according to the dominant forces and processes in each period. The standard cosmological model is known as the CDM model?

CDM model.
Equations of motion
Main article: Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric.

The equations of motion governing the universe as a whole are derived from general relativity with a small, positive cosmological constant.[4]The solution is an expanding universe; due to this expansion the radiation and matter in the universe are cooled down and become diluted. At first, the expansion is slowed down by gravitation due to the radiation and matter content of the universe. However, as these become diluted, the cosmological constant becomes more dominant and the expansion of the universe starts to accelerate rather than decelerate. In our universe this has already happened, billions of years ago.

Particle physics in cosmology
Main article: Particle physics in cosmology

Particle physics is important to the behavior of the early universe, since the early universe was so hot that the average energy density was very high. Because of this, scattering processes and decay of unstable particles are important in cosmology.

As a rule of thumb, a scattering or a decay process is cosmologically important in a certain cosmological epoch if the time scale describing that process is smaller or comparable to the time scale of the expansion of the universe, which is 1 / H with H being the Hubble constant at that time. This is roughly equal to the age of the universe at that time.

Timeline of the Big Bang
Main article: Timeline of the Big Bang

Observations suggest that the universe began around 13.7 billion years ago. Since then, the evolution of the universe has passed through three phases. The very early universe, which is still poorly understood, was the split second in which the universe was so hot that particles had energies higher than those currently accessible in particle accelerators on Earth. Therefore, while the basic features of this epoch have been worked out in the Big Bang theory, the details are largely based on educated guesses. Following this, in the early universe, the evolution of the universe proceeded according to known high energy physics. This is when the first protons, electrons and neutrons formed, then nuclei and finally atoms. With the formation of neutral hydrogen, the cosmic microwave background was emitted. Finally, the epoch of structure formation began, when matter started to aggregate into the first stars and quasars, and ultimately galaxies, clusters of galaxies and superclusters formed. The future of the universe is not yet firmly known, but according to the CDM model it will continue expanding forever.

Areas of study

Below, some of the most active areas of inquiry in cosmology are described, in roughly chronological order. This does not include all of the Big Bang cosmology, which is presented in Timeline of the Big Bang. The very early universe.

While the early, hot universe appears to be well explained by the Big Bang from roughly 10-33 seconds onwards, there are several problems. One is that there is no compelling reason, using current particle physics, to expect the universe to be flat, homogeneous and isotropic (see the cosmological principle). Moreover, grand unified theories of particle physics suggest that there should be magnetic monopoles in the universe, which have not been found.
 These problems are resolved by a brief period of cosmic inflation, which drives the universe to flatness, smooths out anisotropies and inhomogeneities to the observed level, and exponentially dilutes the monopoles. The physical model behind cosmic inflation is extremely simple, however it has not yet been confirmed by particle physics, and there are difficult problems reconciling inflation and quantum field theory. Some cosmologists think that string theory and brane cosmology will provide an alternative to inflation.

Another major problem in cosmology is what caused the universe to contain more particles than antiparticles. Cosmologists can observationally deduce that the universe is not split into regions of matter and antimatter. If it were, there would be X-rays and gamma rays produced as a result of annihilation, but this is not observed. This problem is called the baryon asymmetry, and the theory to describe the resolution is called baryogenesis. The theory of baryogenesis was worked out by Andrei Sakharov in 1967, and requires a violation of the particle physics symmetry, called CP-symmetry, between matter and antimatter. Particle accelerators, however, measure too small a violation of CP-symmetry to account for the baryon asymmetry. Cosmologists and particle physicists are trying to find additional violations of the CP-symmetry in the early universe that might account for the baryon asymmetry.

Both the problems of baryogenesis and cosmic inflation are very closely related to particle physics, and their resolution might come from high energy theory and experiment, rather than through observations of the universe.

Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
Main article: Big bang nucleosynthesis
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is the theory of the formation of the elements in the early universe.
It finished when the universe was about three minutes old and its temperature dropped below that at which nuclear fusion could occur. Big Bang nucleosynthesis had a brief period during which it could operate, so only the very lightest elements were produced. Starting from hydrogen ions (protons), it principally produced

deuterium, helium-4 and lithium. Other elements were produced in only trace abundances. The basic theory of nucleosynthesis was developed in 1948 by George Gamow, Ralph Asher Alpher and Robert Herman. It was used for many years as a probe of physics at the time of the Big Bang, as the theory of Big Bang nucleosynthesis connects the abundances of primordial light elements with the features of the early universe. Specifically, it can be used to test the equivalence principle, to probe dark matter, and test neutrino physics. Some cosmologists have proposed that Big Bang nucleosynthesis suggests there is a fourth “sterile” species of neutrino.

Cosmic microwave background
Main article: Cosmic microwave background
The cosmic microwave background is radiation left over from decoupling after the epoch of recombination when neutral atoms first formed. At this point, radiation produced in the Big Bang stopped Thomson scattering from charged ions. The radiation, first observed in 1965 by Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson, has a perfect thermal black-body spectrum. It has a temperature of 2.7 kelvins today and is isotropic to one part in 105. Cosmological perturbation theory, which describes the evolution of slight inhomogeneities in the early universe, has allowed cosmologists to precisely calculate the angular power spectrum of the radiation, and it has been measured by the recent satellite experiments (COBE and WMAP) and many ground and balloon-based experiments (such as Degree Angular Scale Interferometer, Cosmic Background Imager, and Boomerang).

One of the goals of these efforts is to measure the basic parameters of the Lambda-CDM model with increasing accuracy, as well as to test the predictions of the Big Bang model and look for new physics. The recent measurements made by WMAP, for example, have placed limits on the neutrino masses.

NEWER
Newer experiments, such as QUIET and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, are trying to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. These measurements are expected to provide further confirmation of the theory as well as information about cosmic inflation, and the so-called secondary anisotropies, such as the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect and Sachs-Wolfe effect, which are caused by interaction between galaxies and clusters with the cosmic microwave background.

Formation and evolution of large-scale structure
Main articles: Large-scale structure of the cosmos, Structure formation, and Galaxy formation and evolution

Understanding the formation and evolution of the largest and earliest structures (i.e., quasars, galaxies, clusters and superclusters) is one of the largest efforts in cosmology. Cosmologists study a model of hierarchical structure formation in which structures form from the bottom up, with smaller objects forming first, while the largest objects, such as superclusters, are still assembling. One way to study structure in the universe is to survey the visible galaxies, in order to construct a three-dimensional picture of the galaxies in the universe and measure the matter power spectrum. This is the approach of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey.

Another tool for understanding structure formation is simulations, which cosmologists use to study the gravitational aggregation of matter in the universe, as it clusters into filaments, superclusters and voids. Most simulations contain only non-baryonic cold dark matter, which should suffice to understand the universe on the largest scales, as there is much more dark matter in the universe than visible, baryonic matter. More advanced simulations are starting to include baryons and study the formation of individual galaxies. Cosmologists study these simulations to see if they agree with the galaxy surveys, and to understand any discrepancy.

Other, complementary observations to measure the distribution of matter in the distant universe and to probe reionization include:

The Lyman alpha forest, which allows cosmologists to measure the distribution of neutral atomic hydrogen gas in the early universe, by measuring the absorption of light from distant quasars by the gas.

The 21 centimeter absorption line of neutral atomic hydrogen also provides a sensitive test of cosmology.

 Weak lensing, the distortion of a distant image by gravitational lensing due to dark matter.

These will help cosmologists settle the question of when and how structure formed in the universe.

Dark Matter
Main article: Dark matter

Evidence from Big Bang nucleosynthesis, the cosmic microwave background and structure formation suggests that about 23% of the mass of the universe consists of non-baryonic dark matter, whereas only 4% consists of visible, baryonic matter. The gravitational effects of dark matter are well understood, as it behaves like a cold, non-radiative fluid that forms haloes around galaxies. Dark matter has never been detected in the laboratory, and the particle physics nature of dark matter remains completely unknown. Without observational constraints, there are a number of candidates, such as a stable supersymmetric particle, a weakly interacting massive particle, an axion, and a massive compact halo object. Alternatives to the dark matter hypothesis include a modification of gravity at small accelerations (MOND) or an effect from brane cosmology.

Dark Energy
Main article: Dark energy

If the universe is flat, there must be an additional component making up 73% (in addition to the 23% dark matter and 4% baryons) of the energy density of the universe. This is called dark energy. In order not to interfere with Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background, it must not cluster in haloes like baryons and dark matter. There is strong observational evidence for dark energy, as the total energy density of the universe is known through constraints on the flatness of the universe, but the amount of clustering matter is tightly measured, and is much less than this. The case for dark energy was strengthened in 1999, when measurements demonstrated that the expansion of the universe has begun to gradually accelerate.

Apart from its density and its clustering properties, nothing is known about dark energy. Quantum field theory predicts a cosmological constant much like dark energy, but 120 orders of magnitude larger than that observed. Steven Weinberg and a number of string theorists (see string landscape) have used this as evidence for the anthropic principle, which suggests that the cosmological constant is so small because life (and thus physicists, to make observations) cannot exist in a universe with a large cosmological constant, but many people find this an unsatisfying explanation.

Other possible explanations for dark energy include quintessence or a modification of gravity on the largest scales. The effect on cosmology of the dark energy that these models describe is given by the dark energy’s equation of state, which varies depending upon the theory. The nature of dark energy is one of the most challenging problems in cosmology.

A better understanding of dark energy is likely to solve the problem of the ultimate fate of the universe. In the current cosmological epoch, the accelerated expansion due to dark energy is preventing structures larger than superclusters from forming. It is not known whether the acceleration will continue indefinitely, perhaps even increasing until a big rip, or whether it will eventually reverse.

Other areas of inquiry
Cosmologists also study:

whether primordial black holes were formed in our universe, and what happened to them.
The GZK cutoff for high-energy cosmic rays, and whether it signals a failure of special relativity at high energies the equivalence principle, whether or not Einstein’s general theory of relativity is the correct theory of gravitation, and if the fundamental laws of physics are the same everywhere in the universe.

See Also:
Physics portal  String cosmology
Physical Ontology List of Cosmologists

References:
 For an overview, see George FR Ellis (2006). “Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology”. In Jeremy Butterfield & John Earman. Philosophy of Physics (Handbook of the Philosophy of Science) 3 volume set. North Holland. pp. 1183ff. arXiv:astro-ph/0602280. ISBN 0444515607.^ Science 20 June 2003:Vol. 300. no. 5627, pp. 1914 – 1918 Throwing Light on Dark Energy, Robert P. Kirshner. Accessed December 2006^ e.g. Liddle, A.. An Introduction to Modern Cosmology. Wiley. ISBN 0-470-84835-9. This argues cogently “Energy is always, always, always conserved.”^ P. Ojeda and H. Rosu (Jun 2006). “Supersymmetry of FRW barotropic cosmologies”. Internat. J. Theoret. Phys. (Springer) 45: 1191–1196.arXiv:gr-qc/0510004. Bibcode 2006IJTP…45.1152R. doi:10.1007/s10773-006-9123-2.

Further Reading:
Popular-
Brian Greene (2005). The Fabric of the Cosmos. Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 0-14-101111-4.Alan Guth (1997). The Inflationary Universe: The Quest for a New Theory of Cosmic Origins. Random House. ISBN 0-224-04448-6.Hawking, Stephen W. (1988). A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. Bantam Books, Inc. ISBN 0-553-38016-8.Hawking, Stephen W. (2001). The Universe in a Nutshell. Bantam Books, Inc. ISBN 0-553-80202-X.Simon Singh (2005).

Big Bang: the origins of the universe. Fourth Estate. ISBN 0-00-716221-9.Steven Weinberg (1993; 1978). The First Three Minutes. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02437-8.clic model Paul Steinhardt;
Neil Turok 2002 Expanding and contracting in cycles; M theory. Two parallel orbifold planes or M-branes collide periodically in a higher dimensional space. With quintessence or dark energy
Cyclic model Lauris Baum;
Paul Frampton 2007 Solution ofTolman’s entropy problem Phantom dark energy fragments universe into large number of disconnected patches. Our patch contracts containing only dark energy with zero entropy.  Table notes: the term “static” simply means not expanding and not contracting. Symbol G represents Newton’s gravitational constant;
 (Lambda) is the cosmological constant.

Physical Cosmology
Main article: Physical cosmology

Physical cosmology is the branch of physics and astrophysics that deals with the study of the physical origins and evolution of the Universe. It also includes the study of the nature of the Universe on its very largest scales. In its earliest form it was what is now known as celestial mechanics, the study of the heavens.

The Greek philosophers Aristarchus of Samos, Aristotle and Ptolemy proposed different cosmological theories. In particular, the geocentric Ptolemaic system was the accepted theory to explain the motion of the heavens until Nicolaus Copernicus, and subsequently Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei proposed a heliocentric system in the 16th century. This is known as one of the most famous examples of epistemological rupture in physical cosmology.

With Isaac Newton and the 1687 publication of Principia Mathematica, the problem of the motion of the heavens was finally solved. Newton provided a physical mechanism for Kepler’s laws and his law of universal gravitation allowed the anomalies in previous systems, caused by gravitational interaction between the planets, to be resolved. A fundamental difference between Newton’s cosmology and those preceding it was the Copernican principle that the bodies on earth obey the same physical laws as all the celestial bodies. This was a crucial philosophical advance in physical cosmology.

Modern Scientific Cosmology
Modern scientific cosmology is usually considered to have begun in 1917 with Albert Einstein’s publication of his final modification of general relativity in the paper “Cosmological Considerations of the General Theory of Relativity,” (although this paper was not widely available outside of Germany until the end of World War I). General relativity prompted cosmogonists such as Willem de Sitter, Karl Schwarzschild and Arthur Eddington to explore the astronomical consequences of the theory, which enhanced the growing ability of astronomers to study very distant objects. Prior to this (and for some time afterwards), physicists assumed that the Universe was static and unchanging.

In parallel to this dynamic approach to cosmology, one long-standing debate about the structure of the cosmos was coming to a climax. Mount Wilson astronomer Harlow Shapley championed the model of a cosmos made up of the Milky Way star system only ; while Heber D. Curtis argued for the idea that spiral nebulae were star systems in their own right – island universes. This difference of ideas came to a climax with the organization of the Great Debate at the meeting of the (US) National Academy of Sciences in Washington on 26 April 1920.

The resolution of this debate came with the detection of novae in the Andromeda galaxy by Edwin Hubble in 1923 and 1924. Their distance established spiral nebulae well beyond the edge of the Milky Way and has galaxies of their own.

Subsequent modeling of the universe explored the possibility that the cosmological constant introduced by Einstein in his 1917 paper may result in an expanding universe, depending on its value. Thus the big bang model was proposed by the Belgian priest Georges Lemaître in 1927 which was subsequently corroborated by Edwin Hubble’s discovery of the red shift in 1929 and later by the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation by Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson in 1964. These findings were a first step to rule out some of many alternative physical cosmologies.

Recent observations made by the COBE and WMAP satellites observing this background radiation have effectively, in many scientists’ eyes, transformed cosmology from a highly speculative science into a predictive science, as these observations matched predictions made by a theory called Cosmic inflation, which is a modification of the standard big bang model. This has led many to refer to modern times as the “Golden age of cosmology.”(Source: Wikipedia)

Further reading

Popular

Brian Greene (2005). The Fabric of the Cosmos. Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 0-14-101111-4.Alan Guth (1997). The Inflationary Universe: The Quest for a New Theory of Cosmic Origins. Random House. ISBN 0-224-04448-6.Hawking, Stephen W. (1988). A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. Bantam Books, Inc. ISBN 0-553-38016-8.Hawking, Stephen W. (2001). The Universe in a Nutshell. Bantam Books, Inc. ISBN 0-553-80202-X.Simon Singh (2005). Big Bang: the origins of the universe. Fourth Estate. ISBN 0-00-716221-9.Steven Weinberg (1993; 1978). The First Three Minutes. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02437-8

See also:
Astronomy portal Absolute time and space

Astrology
Astronomy List of astrophysicists
Non-standard cosmology
TaijiTaoMahapurana (Jainism)From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mahapurana is a major Jain text composed largely by Acharya Jinasena during the rule of Rashtrakuta ruler Amoghavarshaand completed by his pupil Gunabhadra in the 9th century CE. The section composed by Gunabhadra is called “Uttarapurana”. The completed and edited text was released by Lokasena, pupil of Gunabhadra in a celebration at Bankapura in the court of Vira-Bankeyarasa in 898 CE. The first 42 Parvans of this text were written by Jinasena, while remaining 34 Parvans were composed by Gunabhara.

This text gives an encyclopedic account of the Jain tradition.
—————-The text is widely quoted. A widely used quote from Carl Sagan’s Cosmos, page 140 is:

“Some foolish men declare that Creator made the world. The doctrine that the world was created is ill-advised, and should be rejected. If god created the world, where was he before creation? If you say he was transcendent then, and needed no support, where is he now?”,

A number of Jain and non-Jain texts have been influenced by the Mahapurana. Mahapurana was the model for Saiva SiddhantaPeriyapuranam which gives biographies of the 63 individuals. »

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Bio
Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris is an Author/Entrepreneur. TJ specializes in paranormal/super natural phenomenon. TJ was a professional consultant and expert witness on legal investigations and has prior military and government service in the USA 1980-1993. Professionally she uses her initials TJ. TJ has written several paranormal books including Ascension Age 2012 & Beyond, Alien UFO Story by TJ, Avatar Oracle Xeno Guide, Roswell Connection, Roswell UFO Encounters, UFOS & Extraterrestrials, and Uplifting the Soul. All books are in print available. TJ shares her life with TJ Morris & Friends and is an Ambassador of Goodwill with American Culture International Relations and ACIR. TJ Morris is her trademark ACIR her service mark.
TJ also edits books for her friends and publishes books such as mysteries and paranormal romance. Professional History in corporate international marketing, manufacturing, legal investigations, newspaper columnist, and magazine publisher. TJ lives in Kentucky USA with husband who is also an author. TJ is a speaker, spiritual consultant, producer, publisher. TJ spends much of her time assisting others as a consultant in business and with building websites. TJ’s are ACIR.us, AmericanNewsMagazine.com, TJMorris.org, ETSpirit.org,  ASCENSIONcenter.org, and many others as media online press including TimelyManorBooks.com. Tj’s books available on Amazon and Lulu under Theresa J Morris and TJ Thurmond Morris. TJ has been interested in the Alien ET UFO Community all her life with a strong research history in the metaphysics, ontology, and is founder of the ACE Folklife Historical Society and Ascension Center.org.

 TJ is also a natural born leader as a Capricorn with Aquarius rising and promotes expos, seminars, and her friends and their business interests. TJ attracts others who desire to share similar interests in social networks and is a social entrepreneur. TJ writes about what interests her including her friends and their businesses. TJ loves people, places, things, and having a near death experience learned the power of meditation and prayer for all those who believe as she does in Ascension Vertical Lifestyles for body-mind-spirit. TJ has been a Life Coach to those who request her services as a mentor. TJ is a known planner organizer since she founded Psychic Network in Hawaii 1990-1993 and has worked in seminars and expos in the USA.

Ascension Age – Golden Age of Cosmology by TJ

A widely used quote from Carl Sagan’s Cosmos, page 140 is:
“Some foolish men declare that Creator made the world. The doctrine that the world was created is ill-advised, and should be rejected. If god created the world, where was he before creation? If you say he was transcendent then, and needed no support, where is he now?”,

ASCENSION CENTER ORGNIZATION, ET SPIRIT ORGANIZATION, TJ MORRIS ORGANIZATION

We specialize in sharing the ACE FOLKLIFE of common folk.
We also welcome all who desire to join us as members in the ACE FOLKLIFE and all three (3) of the organizations created to support the NEW AGE of ASCENSION as the GOLDEN AGE of !
ACE FOLKLIFE – ASCENSION AGE – GOLDEN AGE OF COSMOLOGY
By: Theresa J. Morris
I would like to introduce that expansion of our minds we may regard as outside of the ALIEN ET BOX. That which we can share as outside of this Omniverse as the ET Creator Dieties also known as ALPHA and OMEGA or the Beginning and End. We have all heard of the seven (7) heavens or have we? Universe, Multiverse, Metaverse, Xenoverse, Omniverse, Alphaverse,Omegaverse.
ALPHA & OMEGA SYNERGY ENERGY FOR OUR ASCENSION AGE (Golden Age Cosmology)
We all are experiencing our past, present, future as the IMMORTALS of our SOULS!
Those who I am finding out on earth that are humanoids have large holes in their education about who they are, why there are here, what they are to explore, and what will happen to them when they leave earth.
Therefore, I am inclined to share what was sent to me as inspired thoughts about the ASCENSION CENTER and the symbol. For those who believe in ALIENS and ET one might believe that I am a messenger. I believe I am based on my past life and death experiences in this lifetime and my memories of reincarnation. I share what I can as what is now referred to as a Spiritual Teacher or Spiritual Guide. Some believe that Avatars are reincarnated spirits and I tend to agree. There are spiritual avatars and internet avatars and in some ways we are similar. Please share this article with those who believe in the Alien ET Ascension Age. Some of us don’t only believe but we know of our existence as those who are to share parts of ourselves. We know that something wonderful is happening and occurring right now today as in the PRESENT!
We who are called PSYCHICS and REMOTE VIEWERS have all learned to astral travel in a manner of speaking. We can share the various time frames and dimensions we share in space that we call the cosmos. I shall end this with a quote of Carl Sagan’s Cosmos but please take the time to read this article and copy it to your “Hidden Archive Treasure FILES”.

 We are all “IMMORTAL SOULS”  – Ascension Center Organization teachers the continuous process of the expansion of our souls creations. Theresa (Tara) J. Thurmond Morrs – Founder of Ascension, ET Spirit, TJ
Alien to our own way of thinking is that which we call the God force also known as the God Particle or ET particle in the cosmos. We of the world that are sharing the word “FUTURISTS” as “SEERS” also enjoy knowing that we can use our “Screen of the mind” or our “PSYCHE”.
I have shared a part of me in three (3) as that which has my signature on what we call creation of websites on the Internet Online which is our cyberspace reality in the cosmos.
1. AscensionCenter.org, 2. ETSpirit.org, 3. TJMorris.org as my contribution to our future Esprit de Corps. I  am choosing to share that which I would normally place on these websites as that which also should be welcomed by Dirk Vander Ploeg of UFO Digest.com.
We share our thoughts and creations on earth and welcome all others who desire to link to us and our creations as websites in cyberspace. Virtual reality is one layer of our existence.
Submitted by Theresa J. Thur… on Sun, 10/23/2011 – 15:35
I would like to introduce that expansion of our minds we may regard as outside of the ALIEN ET BOX. That which we can share as outside of this Omniverse as the ET Creator Dieties also known as ALPHA and OMEGA or the Beginning and End. We have all heard of the seven (7) heavens or have we? Those who I am finding out on earth that are humanoids have large holes in their education about who they are, why there are here, what they are to explore, and what will happen to them when they leave earth. Therefore, I am inclined to share what was sent to me as inspired thoughts about the ASCENSION CENTER and the symbol. For those who believe in ALIENS and ET one might believe that I am a messenger. I believe I am based on my past life and death experiences in this lifetime and my memories of reincarnation. I share what I can as what is now referred to as a Spiritual Teacher or Spiritual Guide. Some believe that Avatars are reincarnated spirits and I tend to agree. There are spiritual avatars and internet avatars and in some ways we are similar. Please share this article with those who believe in theAlien ET Ascension Age. Some of us don’t only believe but we know of our existence as those who are to share parts of ourselves. We know that something wonderful is happening and occurring right now today as in the PRESENT!
We who are called PSYCHICS and REMOTE VIEWERS have all learned to astral travel in a manner of speaking. We can share the various time frames and dimensions we share in space that we call the cosmos. I shall end this with a quote of Carl Sagan’s Cosmos but please take the time to read this article and copy it to your “Hidden Archive Treasure FILES”. We are all “IMMORTAL SOULS” TJ 
Alien to our own way of thinking is that which we call the God force also known as the God Particle or ET particle in the cosmos. We of the world that are sharing the word “FUTURISTS” as “SEERS” also enjoy knowing that we can use our “Screen of the mind” or our “PSYCHE”.
I have shared a part of me in three (3) as that which has my signature on what we call creation of websites on the Internet Online which is our cyberspace reality in the cosmos.
1. AscensionCenter.org, 2. ETSpirit.org, 3. TJMorris.org as my contribution to our future Esprit de Corps. 
I  am choosing to share that which I would normally place on these websites as that which also should be welcomed by Dirk Vander Ploeg of UFO Digest.com.
We share our thoughts and creations on earth and welcome all others who desire to link to us and our creations as websites in cyberspace. Virtual reality is one layer of our existence.
It is time we all gravitate toward our other selves as real-time Avatars in Cyberpsace in the WEB online. We are all now realizing we are much more than our physical selves. We can create our thoughts into websites and blogs in space that is electronically engineered in cyberspace that we call the Web on the Internet online. Things are changing and so are we.
Please READ the FOLLOWING in it’s entirety in order to understand more about the PAST-PRESENT-FUTURE of all of us!
That which claims to be both politics and religion are changing in this world and we the people as the common folk are the reason. We can see that the world we live that includes television and the entertainment media is changing along with us. We have interests and now the Internet is recording our interests and our involvement with our Internet is now being archived not only as common groups with similar interests but as individuals. This is also done in space by those we call “ALIENS” and “ET”.
GET READY FOR THE ASCENSION AGE!
THE COSMOS
“I am that I AM” is a famous saying. We can all say and know that as the God Particle Energy in each and everyone of us. However, can we all agree that there is an outside force that flows inside of us all as that which is also called the “I AM”?
Alpha and Omega in Greek is the same as in English saying A and Z in the literal translation of thought and the way we think and surmise on earth. However, we are now learning to accept the new age we call the “ASCENSION AGE” in which we call our way of knowing and becoming awake and aware of our own “Mortality”. Just as Steven Jobs passed on or died at the young “Babyboomer” age of 57 years, this has left us all confronting our own “Mortality” and “Immortality”.
  ALPHA and OMEGA CREATOR DIETIES of the Alphaverse, and Omegaverse home to our own Omniverse I have been impressed or inspired to share that which has come to me due to questions that I have been asked about our Creator Deities and the Omniverse in which we live. The fact that I thought that I was not allowed to venture further our of my known conscious existence as that of the Omniverse has changed in the last week. I should point out to my readers that if one challenges their minds to look back in the history of my writings on UFO Digest of which I am a contributing syndicated columnist one will find a history of how I have grown in my own particles and waves flux and flows.  I am very happy to report that I now have the awakened awareness that we have that of which I have known in the furthest solar core of my own soul as the Alpha and Omega.  The Alphaverse and Omegaverse to show those who are only into the physical reality of science that there can be seven (7) levels and dimensions to our souls eternal source and life force we presently address as energy and essence. Our energy and essence is expressed in this lifetime as our SPIRIT! We have learned that we all share something in common besides our own physical makeup as humanoids with a head, trunk, and limbs. We have a brain that allows us to think for ourselves. Inside our brain and inside our mind also exists our own awareness of life that we call our conscious awareness of the fact that we are alive. Some of us are only thinking about that which we can see, feel, touch, taste, hear, and smell with what we are told are our five (5) senses. We now know that our emotional state of being with our nervous system in tact allows us to also understand and react to the outside stimulus we encounter on a daily basis. It has now come to the attention of this one person also known as a humanoid sentient intelligent being that we are much, much more than what we perceive. We are all the creations that are here to explore our way back to the creator deities of both Alpha and Omega. 
Alpha is the male energy and Omega is the female energy that we are all created with and sent in tachyon energy as the strongest force that is now not understood.  The Alpha wraps around the Omniverse. The Omega is the entire womb of that which we call Alphaverse and Omniverse in one manner of thinking in the Physical Cosmology. In the the Alphaverse is the outer creation of the Omniverse, as well as, the Omega is the outer creation of the Omniverse.   
 We now are in the quandary as to which came first the chicken or the egg. We need both in order to understand the other. Therefore we are now at the crossroads in Quantum Physics and the study of Quantum Entanglement with what we call the Theory which is only one of many new theories of everything. 
(The theoretical ‘God’ particle might have a mass between 120 and 140GeV – looked much less conclusive among new statistics received from the experiment. Guido Tonelli, spokesman for the Compact Muon Solenoid Detector, a huge particle detector at CERN employing 3,600 scientists, told the BBC’s Today programme this week, ‘If we exclude the existence of the Higgs this will be a major discovery – it would completely review our vision of nature.’) One of the biggest questions in science – does ‘the God particle’ exist? – is likely to be answered by the end of next year, it was claimed yesterday.
The Higgs boson, nicknamed the God particle, is theoretically responsible for mass, without which there would be no gravity and no universe. Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2037722/God-particle-goes-missing-Higgs-boson-exist-say-Hadron-Collider-scientists.html#ixzz1bdNjmchW  
No one being  can create that which gives us the spirit and soul. We can clone animals but do they have the same soul content makeup of the humanoids? Please begin updating your information on our COMMON and PRACTICAL history of the past way we have been programmed. We will now all be able to become more as we learn to receive divine revelations from that which we call the alpha and omega forces direct.
Father Alpha and Mother Omega which is inside us all as both a male and female energy entity.
 We will learn some new ways to be, do, have, think, exist, and what we thought in the past will now become history in various forms. We share our Metaphysical, Physical, and Religious Cosmology in our ACE FOLKLIFE on earth. 
The Alpha and Omega allows us to now know that “ALIEN CIVILIZATIONS EXIST!” 
CDM or Lambda-CDM is an abbreviation for Lambda-Cold Dark Matter, which is also known as the cold dark matter model with dark energy. It is frequently referred to as the standard model of big bang cosmology, since it attempts to explain: the existence and structure of the cosmic microwave background the large scale structure of galaxy clusters the distribution of hydrogen, helium, deuterium and lithium the accelerating expansion of the universe observed in the light from distant galaxies and supernovae.
 It is the simplest model that is in general agreement with observed phenomena. Creator Deity -Metaphysical Cosmology(Physical Cosmology & Religious Cosmology)Main article: Cosmology (metaphysics)In philosophy and metaphysics, cosmology deals with the world as the totality of space, time and all phenomena. Historically, it has had quite a broad scope, and in many cases was founded in religion. The ancient Greeks did not draw a distinction between this use and their model for the cosmos. 
However, in modern use it addresses questions about the Universe which are beyond the scope of science. It is distinguished from religious cosmology in that it approaches these questions using philosophical methods (e.g. dialectics). Modern metaphysical cosmology tries to address questions such as:
What is the origin of the Universe? 
What is its first cause? Is its existence necessary? (see monism, pantheism, emanationism and creationism)
What are the ultimate material components of the Universe? (see mechanism, dynamism, hylomorphism, atomism)
What is the ultimate reason for the existence of the Universe? Does the cosmos have a purpose? (see teleology)Does the existence of consciousness have a purpose? How do we know what we know about the totality of the cosmos? Does cosmological reasoning reveal metaphysical truths?
A creator deity is a deity responsible for the creation of the world (or universe). In monotheism, the single God is necessarily also the creator deity, while polytheistic traditions may or may not have creator deities. A number of monolatristic traditions separate a secondary creator from a primary transcendent being, identified as a primary creator. 
 Cosmology is the discipline that deals with the origin, structure, and space-time relationships of the universe or a theory or doctrine describing the natural order of the universe .Cosmologists study the universe as a whole: its birth, growth, shape, size and eventual fate. Modern cosmology is dominated by the Big Bang theory, which brings together observational astronomy and particle physics. 
Though the word cosmology is recent (first used in 1730 in Christian Wolff’s (Cosmologia Generalis), the study of the universe has a long history involving science, philosophy, esotericism, metaphysics, and religion. (See Cosmogony for the study of origins of the Universe and Cosmography for the features of the Universe.) Physical cosmology, as a branch of astronomy, is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its formation and evolution. 
For most of human history, it was a branch of metaphysics and religion. Cosmology as a science originated with the Copernican principle, which implies that celestial bodies obey identical physical laws to those on Earth, and Newtonian mechanics, which first allowed us to understand those laws. Physical cosmology, as it is now understood, began with the twentieth century development of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity and better astronomical observations of extremely distant objects. 
These advances made it possible to speculate about the origin of the universe, and allowed scientists to establish the Big Bang Theory as the leading cosmological model. Some researchers still advocate a handful of alternative cosmologies; however, cosmologists generally agree that the Big Bang theory best explains observations.
Cosmology draws heavily on the work of many disparate areas of research in physics. Areas relevant to cosmology include particle physics experiments and theory, including string theory, astrophysics, general relativity, and plasma physics. Thus, cosmology unites the physics of the largest structures in the universe with the physics of the smallest structures in the universe. 
 We now are in the quandary as to which came first the chicken or the egg. We need both in order to understand the other. 
Therefore we are now at the crossroads in Quantum Physics and the study of Quantum Entanglement with what we call the Higgs-Boson Theory which is only one of many new theories of everything. (The theoretical ‘God’ particle might have a mass between 120 and 140GeV – looked much less conclusive among new statistics received from the experiment. Guido Tonelli, spokesman for the Compact Muon Solenoid Detector, a huge particle detector at CERN employing 3,600 scientists, told the BBC’s Today programme this week, ‘If we exclude the existence of the Higgs this will be a major discovery – it would completely review our vision of nature.’) One of the biggest questions in science – does ‘the God particle’ exist? – is likely to be answered by the end of next year, it was claimed yesterday.
The Higgs boson, nicknamed the God particle, is theoretically responsible for mass, without which there would be no gravity and no universe. Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2037722/God-particle-goes-missing-Higgs-boson-exist-say-Hadron-Collider-scientists.html#ixzz1bdNjmchW  No one being  can create that which gives us the spirit and soul. We can clone animals but do they have the same soul content makeup of the humanoids? Please begin updating your information on our COMMON and PRACTICAL history of the past way we have been programmed. We will now all be able to become more as we learn to receive divine revelations from that which we call the alpha and omega forces direct.
Father Alpha and Mother Omega which is inside us all as both a male and female energy entity. We will learn some new ways to be, do, have, think, exist, and what we thought in the past will now become history in various forms. We share our Metaphysical, Physical, and Religious Cosmology in our ACE FOLKLIFE on earth. The Alpha and Omega allows us to now know that “ALIEN CIVILIZATIONS EXIST!” CDM or Lambda-CDM is an abbreviation for Lambda-Cold Dark Matter, which is also known as the cold dark matter model with dark energy. 
It is frequently referred to as the standard model of big bang cosmology, since it attempts to explain: 
the existence and structure of the cosmic microwave
 Background:
 The large scale structure of galaxy clusters
The distribution of hydrogen, helium, deuterium and lithium
The accelerating expansion of the universe observed in the light from distant galaxies and supernovae
It is the simplest model that is in general agreement with observed phenomena. Creator Deity -Metaphysical Cosmology(Physical Cosmology & Religious Cosmology)Main article: Cosmology (metaphysics)In philosophy and metaphysics, cosmology deals with the world as the totality of space, time and all phenomena. Historically, it has had quite a broad scope, and in many cases was founded in religion. The ancient Greeks did not draw a distinction between this use and their model for the cosmos. However, in modern use it addresses questions about the Universe which are beyond the scope of science. It is distinguished from religious cosmology in that it approaches these questions using philosophical methods (e.g. dialectics). Modern metaphysical cosmology tries to address questions such as: 
What is the origin of the Universe? What is its first cause? Is its existence necessary? (see monism, pantheism, emanationism and creationism)
What are the ultimate material components of the Universe? (see mechanism, dynamism, hylomorphism, atomism)What is the ultimate reason for the existence of the Universe? Does the cosmos have a purpose? (see teleology)Does the existence of consciousness have a purpose? How do we know what we know about the totality of the cosmos? Does cosmological reasoning reveal metaphysical truths?
A creator deity is a deity responsible for the creation of the world (or universe). In monotheism, the single God is necessarily also the creator deity, while polytheistic traditions may or may not have creator deities. A number of monolatristic traditions separate a secondary creator from a primary transcendent being, identified as a primary creator.
 Cosmology is the discipline that deals with the origin, structure, and space-time relationships of the universe or a theory or doctrine describing the natural order of the universe .Cosmologists study the universe as a whole: its birth, growth, shape, size and eventual fate. Modern cosmology is dominated by the Big Bang theory, which brings together observational astronomy and particle physics. 
Though the word cosmology is recent (first used in 1730 in Christian Wolff’s (Cosmologia Generalis), the study of the universe has a long history involving science, philosophy, esotericism, metaphysics, and religion. (See Cosmogony for the study of origins of the Universe and Cosmography for the features of the Universe.) Physical cosmology, as a branch of astronomy, is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its formation and evolution. For most of human history, it was a branch of metaphysics and religion. Cosmology as a science originated with the Copernican principle, which implies that celestial bodies obey identical physical laws to those on Earth, and Newtonian mechanics, which first allowed us to understand those laws. 
Physical cosmology, as it is now understood, began with the twentieth century development of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity and better astronomical observations of extremely distant objects. These advances made it possible to speculate about the origin of the universe, and allowed scientists to establish the Big Bang Theory as the leading cosmological model. Some researchers still advocate a handful of alternative cosmologies; however, cosmologists generally agree that the Big Bang theory best explains observations.
Cosmology draws heavily on the work of many disparate areas of research in physics. Areas relevant to cosmology include particle physics experiments and theory, including string theory, astrophysics, general relativity, and plasma physics. Thus, cosmology unites the physics of the largest structures in the universe with the physics of the smallest structures in the universe. 
History of physical cosmology.(See also: Timeline of cosmology and List of cosmologists)
Modern cosmology developed along tandem tracks of theory and observation. 
In 1915, Albert Einstein formulated his theory of general relativity, which provided a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time. At the time, physicists believed in a perfectly static universe that had no beginning or end. Einstein added a cosmological constant to his theory in order to force it to model a static universe containing matter. This so-called Einstein universe is, however, unstable; it will eventually start expanding or contracting. The cosmological solutions of general relativity were found by Alexander Friedmann, whose equations describe the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe, which may expand or contract.
In the 1910s, Vesto Slipher (and later Carl Wilhelm Wirtz) interpreted the red shift of spiral nebulae as a Doppler shift that indicated they were receding from Earth. However, it is difficult to determine the distance to astronomical objects.
 One way is to compare the physical size of an object to its angular size, but a physical size must be assumed to do this. Another method is to measure the brightness of an object and assume an intrinsic luminosity, from which the distance may be determined using the inverse square law. Due to the difficulty of using these methods, they did not realize that the nebulae were actually galaxies outside our own Milky Way, nor did they speculate about the cosmological implications. 
In 1927, the Belgian Roman Catholic priest Georges Lemaître independently derived the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker equations and proposed, on the basis of the recession of spiral nebulae, that the universe began with the “explosion” of a “primeval atom”—which was later called the Big Bang. 
In 1929, Edwin Hubble provided an observational basis for Lemaître’s theory. Hubble showed that the spiral nebulae were galaxies by determining their distances using measurements of the brightness of Cepheid variable stars. He discovered a relationship between the redshift of a galaxy and its distance. He interpreted this as evidence that the galaxies are receding from Earth in every direction at speeds directly proportional to their distance.
 This fact is now known as Hubble’s law, though the numerical factor Hubble found relating recessional velocity and distance was off by a factor of ten, due to not knowing at the time about different types of Cepheid variables. Given the cosmological principle, Hubble’s law suggested that the universe was expanding. There were two primary explanations put forth for the expansion of the universe. One was Lemaître’s Big Bang theory, advocated and developed by George Gamow. 
The other possibility was Fred Hoyle’s steady state model in which new matter would be created as the galaxies moved away from each other. In this model, the universe is roughly the same at any point in time.
For a number of years the support for these theories was evenly divided. However, the observational evidence began to support the idea that the universe evolved from a hot dense state. 
The discovery of the cosmic microwave background in 1965 lent strong support to the Big Bang model, and since the precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background by the Cosmic Background Explorer in the early 1990s, few cosmologists have seriously proposed other theories of the origin and evolution of the cosmos. One consequence of this is that in standard general relativity, the universe began with a singularity, as demonstrated by Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose in the 1960s.Light elements, primarily hydrogen and helium, were created in the Big Bang. These light elements were spread too fast and too thinly in the Big Bang process (see nucleosynthesis) to form the most stable medium-sized atomic nuclei, like iron and nickel. 
This fact allows for later energy release, as such intermediate-sized elements are formed in our era. The formation of such atoms powers the steady energy-releasing reactions in stars, and also contributes to sudden energy releases, such as in novae. Gravitational collapse of matter into black holes is also thought to power the most energetic processes, generally seen at the centers of galaxies (see quasars and in general active galaxies).
Cosmologists are still unable to explain all cosmological phenomena purely on the basis of known conventional forms of energy, for example those related to the accelerating expansion of the universe, and therefore invoke a yet unexplored form of energy called dark energy[2] to account for certain cosmological observations. One hypothesis is that dark energy is the energy of virtual particles (which mathematically must exist in vacuum due to the uncertainty principle).
There is no unambiguous way to define the total energy of the universe in the current best theory of gravity, general relativity. As a result it remains controversial whether one can meaningfully say that total energy is conserved in an expanding universe. For instance, each photon that travels through intergalactic space loses energy due to the redshift effect. 
This energy is not obviously transferred to any other system, so seems to be permanently lost. Nevertheless some cosmologists insist that energy is conserved in some sense. 
Thermodynamics of the universe is a field of study to explore which form of energy dominates the cosmos – relativistic particles which are referred to as radiation, or non-relativistic particles which are referred to as matter. The former are particles whose rest mass is zero or negligible compared to their energy, and therefore move at the speed of light or very close to it; the latter are particles whose kinetic energy is much lower than their rest mass and therefore move much slower than the speed of light.
As the universe expands, both matter and radiation in it become diluted. However, the universe also cools down, meaning that the average energy per particle is getting smaller with time. Therefore the radiation becomes weaker, and dilutes faster than matter. Thus with the expansion of the universe radiation becomes less dominant than matter. In the very early universe radiation dictates the rate of deceleration of the universe’s expansion, and the universe is said to be ‘radiation dominated’. At later times, when the average energy per photon is roughly 10 eV and lower, matter dictates the rate of deceleration and the universe is said to be ‘matter dominated’. 
The intermediate case is not treated well analytically. As the expansion of the universe continues, matter dilutes even further and the cosmological constant becomes dominant, leading to an acceleration in the universe’s expansion. History of the UniverseSee also: Timeline of the Big Bang Theory.
The history of the universe is a central issue in cosmology. The history of the universe is divided into different periods called epochs, according to the dominant forces and processes in each period. The standard cosmological model is known as the CDM
CDM Model.Equations of Motion
Main article: Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric
The equations of motion governing the universe as a whole are derived from general relativity with a small, positive cosmological constant.
The solution is an expanding universe; due to this expansion the radiation and matter in the universe are cooled down and become diluted. At first, the expansion is slowed down by gravitation due to the radiation and matter content of the universe. However, as these become diluted, the cosmological constant becomes more dominant and the expansion of the universe starts to accelerate rather than decelerate. In our universe this has already happened, billions of years ago.
Particle physics in cosmology
Main article: Particle physics in cosmology
Particle physics is important to the behavior of the early universe, since the early universe was so hot that the average energy density was very high. Because of this, scattering processes and decay of unstable particles are important in cosmology.
As a rule of thumb, a scattering or a decay process is cosmologically important in a certain cosmological epoch if the time scale describing that process is smaller or comparable to the time scale of the expansion of the universe, which is 1 / H with H being the Hubble constant at that time. This is roughly equal to the age of the universe at that time. 
Timeline of the Big Bang
Main article: Timeline of the Big Bang 
Observations suggest that the universe began around 13.7 billion years ago. Since then, the evolution of the universe has passed through three phases. The very early universe, which is still poorly understood, was the split second in which the universe was so hot that particles had energies higher than those currently accessible in particle accelerators on Earth. 
Therefore, while the basic features of this epoch have been worked out in the Big Bang theory, the details are largely based on educated guesses. Following this, in the early universe, the evolution of the universe proceeded according to known high energy physics. 
This is when the first protons, electrons and neutrons formed, then nuclei and finally atoms. With the formation of neutral hydrogen, the cosmic microwave background was emitted. Finally, the epoch of structure formation began, when matter started to aggregate into the first stars and quasars, and ultimately galaxies, clusters of galaxies and superclusters formed. 
The future of the universe is not yet firmly known, but according to the CDM  model it will continue expanding forever. 
Areas of Study:
Below, some of the most active areas of inquiry in cosmology are described, in roughly chronological order. This does not include all of the Big Bang cosmology, which is presented in Timeline of the Big Bang.
The very early universe
While the early, hot universe appears to be well explained by the Big Bang from roughly 10-33 seconds onwards, there are several problems. One is that there is no compelling reason, using current particle physics, to expect the universe to be flat, homogeneous and isotropic (see the cosmological principle). Moreover, grand unified theories of particle physics suggest that there should be magnetic monopoles in the universe, which have not been found. 
These problems are resolved by a brief period of cosmic inflation, which drives the universe to flatness, smooths out anisotropies and in homogeneities to the observed level, and exponentially dilutes the monopoles. The physical model behind cosmic inflation is extremely simple, however it has not yet been confirmed by particle physics, and there are difficult problems reconciling inflation and quantum field theory. Some cosmologists think that string theory and brane cosmology will provide an alternative to inflation.
Another major problem in cosmology is what caused the universe to contain more particles than antiparticles. Cosmologists can observationally deduce that the universe is not split into regions of matter and antimatter. If it were, there would be X-rays and gamma rays produced as a result of annihilation, but this is not observed. 
This problem is called the baryon asymmetry, and the theory to describe the resolution is called baryogenesis. The theory of baryogenesis was worked out by Andrei Sakharov in 1967, and requires a violation of the particle physics symmetry, called CP-symmetry, between matter and antimatter. Particle accelerators, however, measure too small a violation of CP-symmetry to account for the baryon asymmetry. Cosmologists and particle physicists are trying to find additional violations of the CP-symmetry in the early universe that might account for the baryon asymmetry.
Both the problems of baryogenesis and cosmic inflation are very closely related to particle physics, and their resolution might come from high energy theory and experiment, rather than through observations of the universe.
Big bang Nucleosynthesis
Main article:
 Big bang nucleosynthesis
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is the theory of the formation of the elements in the early universe. It finished when the universe was about three minutes old and its temperature dropped below that at which nuclear fusion could occur. Big Bang nucleosynthesis had a brief period during which it could operate, so only the very lightest elements were produced. Starting from hydrogen ions (protons), it principally produced deuterium, helium-4 and lithium. Other elements were produced in only trace abundances. The basic theory of nucleosynthesis was developed in 1948 by George Gamow, Ralph Asher Alpher and Robert Herman. It was used for many years as a probe of physics at the time of the Big Bang, as the theory of Big Bang nucleosynthesis connects the abundances of primordial light elements with the features of the early universe. Specifically, it can be used to test the equivalence principle, to probe dark matter, and test neutrino physics. Some cosmologists have proposed that Big Bang nucleosynthesis suggests there is a fourth “sterile” species of neutrino.
Cosmic microwave background
Main article: Cosmic microwave background
The cosmic microwave background is radiation left over from decoupling after the epoch of recombination when neutral atoms first formed. At this point, radiation produced in the Big Bang stopped Thomson scattering from charged ions. The radiation, first observed in 1965 by Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson, has a perfect thermal black-body spectrum. 
It has a temperature of 2.7 kelvins today and is isotropic to one part in 105. Cosmological perturbation theory, which describes the evolution of slight inhomogeneities in the early universe, has allowed cosmologists to precisely calculate the angular power spectrum of the radiation, and it has been measured by the recent satellite experiments (COBE and WMAP) and many ground and balloon-based experiments (such as Degree Angular Scale Interferometer, Cosmic Background Imager, and Boomerang). One of the goals of these efforts is to measure the basic parameters of the Lambda-CDM model with increasing accuracy, as well as to test the predictions of the Big Bang model and look for new physics. The recent measurements made by WMAP, for example, have placed limits on the neutrino masses.
Newer experiments, such as QUIET and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, are trying to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. These measurements are expected to provide further confirmation of the theory as well as information about cosmic inflation, and the so-called secondary anisotropies, such as the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect and Sachs-Wolfe effect, which are caused by interaction between galaxies and clusters with the cosmic microwave background.
Formation and evolution of large-scale structure
Main articles:
 Large-scale structure of the cosmos, Structure formation, and Galaxy formation and evolution.
Understanding the formation and evolution of the largest and earliest structures (i.e., quasars, galaxies, clusters and superclusters) is one of the largest efforts in cosmology. Cosmologists study a model of hierarchical structure formation in which structures form from the bottom up, with smaller objects forming first, while the largest objects, such as superclusters, are still assembling. One way to study structure in the universe is to survey the visible galaxies, in order to construct a three-dimensional picture of the galaxies in the universe and measure the matter power spectrum. This is the approach of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey.
Another tool for understanding structure formation is simulations, which cosmologists use to study the gravitational aggregation of matter in the universe, as it clusters into filaments, superclusters and voids. Most simulations contain only non-baryonic cold dark matter, which should suffice to understand the universe on the largest scales, as there is much more dark matter in the universe than visible, baryonic matter. More advanced simulations are starting to include baryons and study the formation of individual galaxies. Cosmologists study these simulations to see if they agree with the galaxy surveys, and to understand any discrepancy.
Other, complementary observations to measure the distribution of matter in the distant universe and to probe reionization include:
The Lyman alpha forest, which allows cosmologists to measure the distribution of neutral atomic hydrogen gas in the early universe, by measuring the absorption of light from distant quasars by the gas.
The 21 centimeter absorption line of neutral atomic hydrogen also provides a sensitive test of cosmology.
Weak lensing, the distortion of a distant image by gravitational lensing due to dark matter.
These will help cosmologists settle the question of when and how structure formed in the universe. 
Dark Matter
Main article: Dark matter
Evidence from Big Bang nucleosynthesis, the cosmic microwave background and structure formation suggests that about 23% of the mass of the universe consists of non-baryonic dark matter, whereas only 4% consists of visible, baryonic matter. 
The gravitational effects of dark matter are well understood, as it behaves like a cold, non-radiative fluid that forms haloes around galaxies. Dark matter has never been detected in the laboratory, and the particle physics nature of dark matter remains completely unknown. Without observational constraints, there are a number of candidates, such as a stable supersymmetric particle, a weakly interacting massive particle, an axion, and a massive compact halo object. Alternatives to the dark matter hypothesis include a modification of gravity at small accelerations (MOND) or an effect from brane cosmology.
Dark energy
Main article: Dark energy
If the universe is flat, there must be an additional component making up 73% (in addition to the 23% dark matter and 4% baryons) of the energy density of the universe. This is called dark energy. In order not to interfere with Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background, it must not cluster in haloes like baryons and dark matter. There is strong observational evidence for dark energy, as the total energy density of the universe is known through constraints on the flatness of the universe, but the amount of clustering matter is tightly measured, and is much less than this. The case for dark energy was strengthened in 1999, when measurements demonstrated that the expansion of the universe has begun to gradually accelerate.
Apart from its density and its clustering properties, nothing is known about dark energy. Quantum field theory predicts a cosmological constant much like dark energy, but 120 orders of magnitude larger than that observed. Steven Weinberg and a number of string theorists (see string landscape) have used this as evidence for the anthropic principle, which suggests that the cosmological constant is so small because life (and thus physicists, to make observations) cannot exist in a universe with a large cosmological constant, but many people find this an unsatisfying explanation. 
Other possible explanations for dark energy include quintessence or a modification of gravity on the largest scales. The effect on cosmology of the dark energy that these models describe is given by the dark energy’s equation of state, which varies depending upon the theory. The nature of dark energy is one of the most challenging problems in cosmology. 
A better understanding of dark energy is likely to solve the problem of the ultimate fate of the universe. In the current cosmological epoch, the accelerated expansion due to dark energy is preventing structures larger than superclusters from forming. It is not known whether the acceleration will continue indefinitely, perhaps even increasing until a big rip, or whether it will eventually reverse.
Other areas of inquiry:
Cosmologists also study:
Whether primordial black holes were formed in our universe, and what happened to them.
The GZK cutoff for high-energy cosmic rays, and whether it signals a failure of special relativity at high energies the equivalence principle, whether or not Einstein’s general theory of relativity is the correct theory of gravitation, and if the fundamental laws of physics are the same everywhere in the universe.
See also:
Physics portal  String Cosmology
Physical ontology 
List of cosmologists
References^ For an overview, see George FR Ellis (2006). “Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology”. In Jeremy Butterfield & John Earman. Philosophy of Physics (Handbook of the Philosophy of Science) 3 volume set. North Holland. pp. 1183ff. arXiv:astro-ph/0602280. ISBN 0444515607.^ Science 20 June 2003:Vol. 300. no. 5627, pp. 1914 – 1918 Throwing Light on Dark Energy, Robert P. Kirshner. Accessed December 2006^ e.g. Liddle, A.. An Introduction to Modern Cosmology. Wiley. ISBN 0-470-84835-9. This argues cogently “Energy is always, always, always conserved.”^ P. Ojeda and H. Rosu (Jun 2006). “Supersymmetry of FRW barotropic cosmologies”. Internat. J. Theoret. Phys. (Springer) 45: 1191–1196.arXiv:gr-qc/0510004. Bibcode 2006IJTP…45.1152R. doi:10.1007/s10773-006-9123-2.. 
Polytheism
In polytheistic creation myths, the world often comes into being organically, e.g. sprouting from a primal seed, sexually, by miraculous birth(sometimes by parthenogenesis), by hierosgamos, violently, by the slaying of a primeval monster, or artificially, by a divine demiurge or “craftsman”. Sometimes, a god is involved, wittingly or unwittingly, in bringing about creation.
 Examples include:
African contexts:
Mbombo of Bakuba mythology, who vomited out the world upon feeling a stomach ache;
Egyptian mythology
Atum in Ennead, whose semen becomes the primal components of the universe.
Ptah creating the universe by speaking Unkulunkulu in Zulu mythology American contexts:
Nanabozho (Great Rabbit,) Ojibway deity, a shape-shifter and a cocreator of the world.
The goddess Coatlique in Aztec mythology; Viracocha in Inca mythology;
A trickster deity in the form of a Raven in Inuit mythology;
Asian contexts:
El or the Elohim of Canaanite mythology (see Genesis creation myth)Esege Malan in Mongolian mythology, king of the skies Kamuy in Ainu mythology, who built the world on the back of a trout; Izanagi and Izanami in Japanese mythology, who churned the ocean with a spear, creating the islands of Japan
Marduk killing Tiamat in the Babylonian Enuma Elish Vishvakarman in Vedic mythology, responsible for the creation of the universe (while in later Puranic period, Brahma, Vishnu and Shivaare for creation, maintenance and destruction, respectively)European contexts:
The sons of Borr slaying the primeval giant Ymir in Norse mythologyRod in Slavic mythology. 
Oceanic contexts:
Ranginui, the Sky Father, and Papatuanuku, the Earth Mother in Maori mythology
Platonic demiurge
Main article: 
Demiurge
Further information: Neoplatonism and Gnosticism and Great Architect of the Universe
Plato, in his dialogue Timaeus, describes a creation myth involving a being called the demiurge (“craftsman”). This concept was continued in Neoplatonism and Gnosticism. In Neoplatonism, the demiurge represents the second cause or dyad, after the monad. In Gnostic dualism, the demiurge is an imperfect spirit and possibly evil being, transcended by divine Fullness (Pleroma). Unlike the Judeo-Christian God, Plato’s demiurge is unable to create ex-nihilo.
 Monolatrism
See also: 
Brahma Monolatristic traditions would separate a secondary creator from the primary transcendent being, identified as a primary creator. According to Gaudiya Vaishnavas, Brahma is the secondary creator and not the supreme. Vishnu is the primary creator. According to Vaishnavabelief Vishnu creates the basic universal shell and provides all the raw materials and also places the living entities within the material world, fulfilling their own independent will. Brahma works with the materials provided by Vishnu to actually create what are believed to be planets in Puranic terminology, and he supervises the population of them. 
Monism
Main article: Monism
Monism has its origin in Hellenistic philosophy as a concept of all things deriving from a single substance or being. Following a long and still current tradition H.P. Owen (1971: 65) claimed that:
“Pantheists are ‘monists’…they believe that there is only one Being, and that all other forms of reality are either modes (or appearances) of it or identical with it.” Although, like Baruch Spinoza, some pantheists may also be monists, and monism may even be essential to some versions of pantheism (like Spinoza’s), not all pantheists are monists. Some are polytheists and some are pluralists; they believe that there are many things and kinds of things and many different kinds of value.[
Not all monists are pantheists. Exclusive monists believe that the universe, the God of the pantheist, simply does not exist. In addition, monists can be Deists, pandeists, theists or panentheists; believing in a monotheistic God that is omnipotent and all-pervading, and both transcendent and immanent. There are monist pantheists and panentheists in Hinduism(particularly in Advaita and Vishistadvaita respectively), Judaism (monistic panentheism is especially found in Kabbalah and Hasidic philosophy), in Christianity (especially among Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Orthodox, and Anglicans) and in Islam (among the Sufis, especially the Bektashi).In Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is the abstract notion of “the Absolute” from which the universe takes its origin and at an ultimate level, all assertions of a distinction between Brahman, other gods and creation are meaningless (monism).
Buddhism
The Buddha explicitly rejects a creator, denies endorsing any views on creation and states that questions on the origin of the world are worthless.
Some gods in Buddhism have the view that they are creators of the world. For example, Baka Brahma. However, Buddha pointed out to them that they do not know the whole extent of the universe (he said they have no knowledge of some of the highest heavens), and further, the spiritual power of the Buddha was greater than the spiritual power of these gods who thought they created the world. One of the Suttasdealing with this subject is the Kevaddha Sutta.
The Buddha said (in DN1 – the Brahmajala Sutta or The Net of Views) that their view of being the creator of the world is a misconception, and that these Brahma-gods actually have a cause which lead their origination (taking birth as a Brahma-god). Buddha even tells how the views concerning ‘creator gods’ originate in the world – through junior Brahma-gods (with a more limited life-span) who, on their passing away, get reborn as a human, and through practicing meditation are able to remember their previous life as a junior god to a Brahma god. Then, he starts to preach this view of a ‘creator god’ to others (see DN1 – the Brahmajala Sutta) starts to preach this view of a ‘creator god’ to others (see DN1 – the Brahmajala Sutta).
Hinduism
Main article: Hindu creationism
Hinduism includes a range of viewpoints about the origin of life, creationism and evolution. The accounts of the emergence of life within the universe vary in description, but classically the god Brahma, from a Trimurti of three gods also including Vishnu and Shiva, is described as performing the act of creation, or more specifically of “propagating life within the universe” with the other two deities being responsible for preservation and destruction (of the universe) respectively.
 Most Hindu schools do not regard the scriptural creation myth as a literal truth, and often the creation stories themselves do not go into specific detail, thus leaving open the possibility of incorporating at least some theories in support of evolution. Some Hindus find support for, or foreshadowing of evolutionary ideas in scriptures, namely the Vedas. An exception to this acceptance is the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), which includes several members who actively oppose “Darwinism” and the modern evolutionary synthesis.
 Jainism
Main article: Jainism and non-creationism
Jainism does not support belief in a creator deity. According to Jain doctrine, the universe and its constituents – soul, matter, space, time, and principles of motion have always existed (a static universe similar to that of Epicureanism and steady state cosmological model). All the constituents and actions are governed by universal natural laws. It is not possible to create matter out of nothing and hence the sum total of matter in the universe remains the same (similar to law of conservation of mass). Similarly, the soul of each living being is unique and uncreated and has existed since beginningless time.
The Jain theory of causation holds that a cause and its effect are always identical in nature and therefore a conscious and immaterial entity like God cannot create a material entity like the universe. Furthermore, according to the Jain concept of divinity, any soul who destroys its karmas and desires, achieves liberation. A soul who destroys all its passions and desires has no desire to interfere in the working of the universe. Moral rewards and sufferings are not the work of a divine being, but a result of an innate moral order in the cosmos; a self-regulating mechanism whereby the individual reaps the fruits of his own actions through the workings of the karmas.
Through the ages, Jain philosophers have adamantly rejected and opposed the concept of creator and omnipotent God and this has resulted in Jainism being labeled as nastika darsana or atheist philosophy by the rival religious philosophies. The theme of non-creationism and absence of omnipotent God and divine grace runs strongly in all the philosophical dimensions of Jainism, including its cosmology, karma,moksa and its moral code of conduct. Jainism asserts a religious and virtuous life is possible without the idea of a creator god.  
 Monotheism
Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Sikhism teach that creation is the origin of the universe by the action of God.
Among monotheists it has historically been most commonly believed that living things are God’s creations, and are not the result of a process inherent in originally non-living things, unless this process is designed, initiated, or directed by God; likewise, sentient and intelligent beings are believed to be God’s creation, and did not arise through the development of living but non-sentient beings, except by the intervention of God. 
Baha’I
Bahá’í teachings state that God is too great for humans to fully comprehend, or to create a complete and accurate image of, by themselves. Therefore, human understanding of God is achieved through his revelations via his Manifestations. In the Bahá’í religion God is often referred to by titles and attributes (e.g. the All-Powerful, or the All-Loving), and there is a substantial emphasis on monotheism.
Chinese Mythology
Pangu can be interpreted as another creator deity. In the beginning there was nothing in the universe except a formless chaos. 
However this chaos began to coalesce into a cosmic egg for eighteen thousand years. Within it, the perfectly opposed principles of yin and yang became balanced and Pangu emerged (or woke up) from the egg. Pangu is usually depicted as a primitive, hairy giant with horns on his head (like the Greek Pan) and clad in furs. Pangu set about the task of creating the world: he separated Yin from Yang with a swing of his giant axe, creating the Earth (murky Yin) and the Sky (clear Yang). To keep them separated, Pangu stood between them and pushed up the Sky. This task took eighteen thousand years, with each day the sky grew ten feet higher, the Earth ten feet wider, and Pangu ten feet taller. In some versions of the story, Pangu is aided in this task by the four most prominent beasts, namely the Turtle, the Qilin, the Phoenix, and the Dragon.
Shangdi is another creator deity, possibly prior to Pangu sharing concepts similar to abrahamic faiths.
After the eighteen thousand years had elapsed, Pangu was laid to rest. His breath became the wind; his voice the thunder; left eye the sun and right eye the moon; his body became the mountains and extremes of the world; his blood formed rivers; his muscles the fertile lands; his facial hair the stars and milky way; his fur the bushes and forests; his bones the valuable minerals; his bone marrows sacred diamonds; his sweat fell as rain; and the fleas on his fur carried by the wind became human beings all over the world. 
The distance from Earth and Sky at the end of the 18,000 years would have been 65,700,000 feet, or over 12,443 miles.
The first writer to record the myth of Pangu was Xu Zheng  during the Three Kingdoms  period.
Christianity
See also: Christ the Logos
It is a tenet of Christian faith (Roman Catholic, Orthodox and Protestant) that God is the creator of all things from nothing but by his word, and has made human beings in the Image of God, who by direct inference is also the source of the human soul. Within this broad understanding, however, there are a number of views regarding exactly how this doctrine ought to be interpreted.
Some Christians, mainly evangelical Protestants, particularly Young Earth creationists and Old Earth creationists, interpret Genesis as a historical, accurate, and literal account of creation. Others, in contrast, may understand these to be, not statements of historic fact, but rather spiritual insights more vaguely defined.
While the synoptic gospels do not address the question of creation, the Gospel of John famously begins:
“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being … And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us, and we saw His glory, glory as of the only begotten from the Father, full of grace and truth” <John 1:1-3 and 1:14>.The Epistle to the Hebrews, a book of the New Testament, contains another reference to creation:
“For by faith we understand the worlds were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things which are visible” <Hebrews 11:3>.Thus, in Chalcedonian Christology, Jesus is the Word of God, which was in the beginning and, thus, is uncreated, and hence is God, and consequently identical with the Creator of the world ex nihilo.
The Catholic Church allows for either a literal or allegorical interpretation of Genesis, so as to allow for the possibility of Creation by means of an evolutionary process over great spans of time, otherwise known as theistic evolution. It believes that the creation of the world is a work of God through the Logos, the Word (idea, intelligence, reason and logic).The New Testament claims that God created everything by the eternal Word, Jesus Christ his beloved Son. 
In him “all things were created, in heaven and on earth.. . all things were created through him and for him. He is before all things, and in him all things hold together.
Surrounded by a pervasive culture of rationalism, relativism and secularism, the Catholic Church has asserted the primacy of reason in Christian Theology. 
In a 1999 lecture at the University of Paris, then-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger said:
“The question is … whether reason, being a chance by-product of irrationality and floating in an ocean of irrationality, is ultimately just as meaningless; or whether the principle that represents the fundamental conviction of Christian faith and of its philosophy remains true: “In principio erat Verbum” — at the beginning of all things stands the creative power of reason. Now as then, Christian faith represents the choice in favor of the priority of reason and of rationality. […] there is no ultimate demonstration that the basic choice involved in Christianity is correct. Yet, can reason really renounce its claim to the priority of what is rational over the irrational, the claim that the Logos is at the ultimate origin of things, without abolishing itself?””Even today, by reason of its choosing to assert the primacy of reason, Christianity remains “enlightened,” and I think that any enlightenment that cancels this choice must, contrary to all appearances, mean, not an evolution, but an involution, a shrinking, of enlightenment.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 
Followers of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and others within Mormonism, believe that “the elements are eternal” (Doctrine & Covenants § 93:33), and that God (our Father in Heaven–the Creator, Sustainer, and Governor of the Universe)–organized or wrought the creation of the Earth through His Son, Jesus Christ (known as YHWH “Jehovah” of the Old Testament), Who was with Him in the beginning (John 1:1-2, 14): “And by the word of my power have I created them [i.e., the Earth and its many inhabitants], which is mine Only Begotten Son, who is full of grace and truth” (Moses 1:32). 
God, the Father, had His Son fashion the eternal elements into the Earth upon which we live over the course of six creative periods that He called “days” (yom in Hebrew, Genesis 1:5)(note, however, that there is nothing to suggest that these six days were either immediately contiguous or of 24 hours duration (indeed, as to the latter, the data suggests that these “days” were rather longer)). 
“We will go down,” said Jehovah, “for there is space there, and we will take of these [already existing] materials, and we will make an earth whereon these [i.e., us] may dwell” (Abraham 3:24). But Latter-day Saint theology does not perceive God as the Creator of our Earth alone, but of countless worlds: “worlds without number have I created; and I also created them for mine own purpose; and by the Son I created them, which is mine Only Begotten” (Moses 1:33), ” By him, and through him, and of him, the worlds are and were created, and the inhabitants thereof are begotten sons and daughters unto God” (Doctrine & Covenants 76:24).In short, the Creator is an architect and organizer of pre-existing matter and energy, who constructed our original Earth and other worlds out of this raw material according to the laws and principles He has decreed shall govern such things. 
Creationism
 Main article: Creationism 
Christian fundamentalism in the USA since the 1930s has pursued Biblical literalist doctrines of “Creationism” as a counter-hypothesis opposing the scientific community, with concepts such as flood geology, creation science and intelligent design proposed as syntheses of Christian creation beliefs and scientific method. 
Judaism 
Further information: Genesis creation myth 
Orthodox Judaism historically affirms that one incorporeal God (self-identified to Moses as Yahweh) is the creator of all things (many references available, see Job 38-41, for example), and that this same one created Adam and Eve personally (directly). They affirm that this Being is an indivisible one, incomparable to any created thing, and immutable. 
Islam
Main article: Islamic creationism
According to Islam, God, known in Arabic as Allah, is the all-powerful and all-knowing Creator, Sustainer, Ordainer, and Judge of the . Islam puts a heavy emphasis on the conceptualization of God as strictly singular (tawhid). God is unique (wahid) and inherently one (ahad), all-merciful and omnipotent. According to tradition there are 99 Names of God (al-asma al-husna lit. meaning: “The best names”) each of which evoke a distinct attribute of God. All these names refer to Allah, the supreme and all-comprehensive divine name. Among the 99 names of God, the most famous and most frequent of these names are “the Compassionate” (al-rahman) and “the Merciful” (al-rahim).Creation is seen as an act of divine choice and mercy, one with a grand purpose: “And We did not create the heaven and earth and that between them in play.”Rather, the purpose of humanity is to be tested: “Who has created death and life, that He may test you which of you is best in deed. And He is the All-Mighty, the Oft-Forgiving; “Those who pass the test are rewarded with Paradise: “Verily for the Righteous there will be a fulfillment of (the heart’s) desires;
“According to the Islamic teachings, God exists above the heavens and the creation itself. The Qur’an mentions, “He it is Who created for you all that is on earth. Then He Istawa (rose over) towards the heaven and made them seven heavens and He is the All-Knower of everything. “At the same time, God is unlike anything in creation: “There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the Hearing, the Seeing.” and nobody can perceive God in totality: “Vision perceives Him not, but He perceives [all] vision; and He is the Subtle, the Acquainted.” God in Islam is not only majestic and sovereign, but also a personal God: “And indeed We have created man, and We know what his ownself whispers to him. And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein (by Our Knowledge).”Allah commands the believers to constantly remember Him (“O you who have believed, remember Allah with much remembrance”) and to invoke Him alone (“And whoever invokes besides Allah another deity for which he has no proof – then his account is only with his Lord. Indeed, the disbelievers will not succeed.”)Islam teaches that God as referenced in the Qur’an is the only god and the same God worshipped by members of other Abrahamic religions
such as Christianity and Judaism. (29:46).
Sikhism
Main article: Sikh beliefs 
One of the biggest responsibilities in Sikhism is to worship God as “The Creator”, termed Waheguru who is shapeless, timeless, and sightless, i.e., Nirankar, Akal, and Alakh Niranjan. The religion only takes after the belief in “One God for All” or Ik Onkar. 
MYTHOLOGICAL COSMOLOGY also RELIGIOUS COSMOLOGY
 A Religious cosmology (also mythological cosmology) is a way of explaining the origin, the history and the evolution of the universe based on the religious mythology of a specific tradition. Religious cosmologies usually include an act or process of creation by a creator deity or a larger pantheon. 
 Buddhism
Main article: Buddhist cosmology
In Buddhism, the universe comes into existence dependent upon the actions (karma) of its inhabitants. Buddhists posit neither an ultimate beginning or final end to the universe, but see the universe as something in flux, passing in and out of existence, parallel to an infinite number of other universes doing the same thing.
The Buddhist universe consists of a large number of worlds which correspond to different mental states, including passive states of trance, passionless states of purity, and lower states of desire, anger, and fear. The beings in these worlds are all coming into existence or being born, and passing out of existence into other states, or dying. A world comes into existence when the first being in it is born, and ceases to exist, as such, when the last being in it dies. The universe of these worlds also is born and dies, with the death of the last being preceding a universal conflagration that destroys the physical structure of the worlds; then, after an interval, beings begin to be born again and the universe is once again built up. Other universes, however, also exist, and there are higher planes of existence which are never destroyed, though beings that live in them also come into and pass out of existence.
As well as a model of universal origins and destruction, Buddhist cosmology also functions as a model of the mind, with its thoughts coming into existence based on preceding thoughts, and being transformed into other thoughts and other states.
Hebrew Bible
Further information: Biblical cosmology and Genesis creation myth
The main Judeo-Christian religious text, the Bible, opens with a story of creation. The first two chapters of the Book of Genesis describe the creation of heaven and earth by God (called both Elohim and Yhvh) in six successive days.
First day: God creates light (“Let there be light!”)[Gen 1:3]—the first divine command. The light is divided from the darkness, and “day” and “night” are named.
Second day: God creates a firmament (“Let a firmament be…!”)[Gen 1:6–7]—the second command—to divide the waters above from the waters below. The firmament is named “heaven” (shamayim).
Third day: God commands the waters below to be gathered together in one place, and dry land to appear (the third command).[Gen 1:9–10]”earth” and “sea” are named. God commands the earth to bring forth grass, plants, and fruit-bearing trees (the fourth command).
Fourth day: God creates lights in the firmament (the fifth command)[Gen 1:14–15] to separate light from darkness and to mark days, seasons and years. Two great lights are made and the stars.
Fifth day: God commands the sea to “teem with living creatures”, and birds to fly across the heavens (sixth command)[Gen 1:20–21] He creates birds and sea creatures, and commands them to be fruitful and multiply.
Sixth day: God commands the land to bring forth living creatures (seventh command); He makes wild beasts, livestock and “every thing that creepeth upon the earth”.[Gen 1:24–25] He then creates humanity in His “image” and “likeness” (eighth command).[Gen 1:26–28] They are told to “be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it.” The totality of creation is described by God as “very good.” 
Seventh day: God, having completed the heavens and the earth, rests from His work, and blesses and sanctifies the seventh day. [Gen 2:2] 
Christianity:
See also: Biblical cosmology, Ex nihilo, and Creationism
It is a tenet of Christian faith (Roman Catholic, Orthodox and Protestant) that God is the creator of all things from nothing, and has made human beings in the Image of God, who by direct inference is also the source of the human soul. In Chalcedonian Christology, Jesus is the Word of God, which was in the beginning and, thus, is uncreated, and hence is God, and consequently identical with the Creator of the worldex nihilo.
The New Testament claims that God created everything by the eternal Word, Jesus Christ his beloved Son. In him “All things were created, in heaven and on earth.. . all things were created through him and for him. He is before all things, and in him all things hold together. 
Mormon
Main article: Mormon cosmology
Mormon cosmology draws from Biblical cosmology, but has many unique elements provided by Latter Day Saint movement founder Joseph Smith, Jr.
According to Mormon cosmology, there was a pre-existence, better described as a pre-mortal life, in which human spirits were literal children of heavenly parents.
Though their spirits were created, the essential “intelligence” of these spirits is considered eternal, and without beginning. During this pre-existence, two plans were said to have been presented, one championed by Lucifer (Satan) that would have involved loss of moral agency, and another championed by God the Father. When his plan was not accepted, Lucifer is said to have rebelled and taken a third of the hosts of heaven with him to the earth to serve as tempters. According to a plan of salvation as described by God the Father, Jesus would create the earth, under the direction of God the Father, as a place where humanity would be tested. 
After the resurrection all men and women except spirits that followed Lucifer and the sons of perdition would be assigned one of three degrees of glory. 
Within the highest degree, the Celestial Kingdom, there are three divisions, and those in the highest of these divisions would become gods and goddesses through a process called exaltation or “eternal progression”. Celestial Kingdom, Terrestrial Kingdom, and Telestial Kingdom are the  three divisions of the three degrees of glory.
This would involve having spirit children and populating new worlds.
The Earth’s creation, according to Mormon scripture, was not ex nihilo, but organized from existing matter. 
The faith teaches that this earth is just one of many inhabited worlds, and that there are many governing heavenly bodies, including a planet or star Kolob which is said to be nearest the throne of God. According to some Mormon sources, God the Father himself was once like a human, and lived on a planet with his own higher god.
Hindu
Main article: Hindu cosmology
The Hindu cosmology and timeline is the closest to modern scientific timelines and even more which might indicate that the Big Bang is not the beginning of everything but just the start of the present cycle preceded by an infinite number of universes and to be followed by another infinite number of universes.
The Rig Veda questions the origin of the cosmos in: “Neither being (sat) nor non-being was as yet. What was concealed? And where? And in whose protection?…Who really knows? Who can declare it? Whence was it born, and whence came this creation? The devas were born later than this world’s creation, so who knows from where it came into existence? None can know from where creation has arisen, and whether he has or has not produced it. He who surveys it in the highest heavens, he alone knows-or perhaps does not know.” (Rig Veda 10. 129) Large scale structure of the Universe according to one Hindu cosmology. Intermediate neighborhood of the Earth according to one Hindu cosmology.
We have the neighborhood of the Earth according to one Hindu cosmology. The Rig Veda’s view of the cosmos also sees one true divine principle self-projecting as the divine word, Vaak, ‘birthing’ the cosmos that we know, from the
monistic  Hiranyagarbha or Golden Womb. The Hiranyagarbha is alternatively viewed as Brahma, the creator who was in turn created by God, or as God (Brahman) himself. 
The universe is considered to constantly expand since creation and disappear into a thin haze after billions of years.
An alternate view is that the universe begins to contract after reaching its maximum expansion limits until it disappears into a fraction of a millimeter
The creation begins anew after billions of years (Solar years) of non-existence.
The puranic view asserts that the universe is created, destroyed, and re-created in an eternally repetitive series of cycles. In Hindu cosmology, a universe endures for about 4,320,000,000 years (one day of Brahma, the creator or kalpa) and is then destroyed by fire or water elements. At this point, Brahma rests for one night, just as long as the day. This process, named pralaya (Cataclysm), repeats for 100 Brahma years (311 Trillion, 40 Billion Human Years) that represents Brahma’s lifespan. It must be noted that Brahma is the creator but not necessarily regarded as God in Hinduism. He is mostly regarded as a creation of God / Brahman. 
We are currently believed to be in the 51st year of the present Brahma and so about 156 trillion years have elapsed since He was born as Brahma. After Brahma’s “death”, it is necessary that another 100 Brahma years (311 Trillion, 40 Billion Years) pass until a new Brahma is born and the whole creation begins anew. This process is repeated again and again, forever. Brahma’s day is divided in one thousand cycles (Maha Yuga, or the Great Year).Maha Yuga, during which life, including the human race appears and then disappears, has 71 divisions, each made of 14 Manvantara (1000) years. Each Maha Yuga lasts for 4,320,000 years. Manvantara is Manu’s cycle, the one who gives birth and governs the human race.
Each Maha Yuga consists of a series of four shorter yugas, or ages. The yugas get progressively worse from a moral point of view as one proceeds from one yuga to another. As a result, each yuga is of shorter duration than the age that preceded it. 
The current Kali Yuga (Iron Age) began at midnight 17 February / 18 February in 3102 BC in the proleptic Julian calendar. 
 Space and time are considered to be maya (illusion). 
What looks like 100 years in the cosmos of Brahma could be thousands of years in other worlds, millions of years in some other worlds and 311 trillion and 40 billion years for our solar system and earth.
Islam
Main articles: Islamic cosmology and Sufi Cosmology 
Islam preaches that God, or Allah, created the universe, including Earth’s physical environment and human beings. The highest goal is to visualize the cosmos as a book of symbols for meditation and contemplation for spiritual upliftment or as a prison from which the human soul must escape to attain true freedom in the spiritual journey to God. Islam elaborates on cosmology in many instances. A modern English translation of the Quran describes the creation of the universe as follows:”We have built the heaven with might, and We are Steadily Expanding it.”51:47  Earlier English translations like for example Ahmed Ali, The Noble Qur’an, Pickthal, Shakir and Yusuf Ali never specify the expansion as a process that is still going on so it seems to be an addition after the expansion of the universe became a generally accepted scientific fact.
Below here there are some other citations from the Quran on cosmology.
“Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before we clove them asunder? We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?” 21:30 Yusuf Ali translation
“The Day that We roll up the heavens like a scroll rolled up for books (completed),- even as We produced the first creation, so shall We produce a new one: a promise We have undertaken: truly shall We fulfil it.” 21:104 Yusuf Ali translation
Jainism
Main article: Jain cosmology
Jain cosmology considers the loka, or universe, as an uncreated entity, existing since infinity, having no beginning or an end. Jain texts
describe the shape of the universe as similar to a man standing with legs apart and arm resting on his waist. This Universe, according to Jainism, is narrow at the top, broad at the middle and once again becomes broad at the bottom.
Mahapura’a of Acarya Jinasena is famous for this quote: “Some foolish men declare that a creator made the world. The doctrine that the world was created is ill advised and should be rejected. If God created the world, where was he before the creation? If you say he was transcendent then and needed no support, where is he now? How could God have made this world without any raw material? 
If you say that he made this first, and then the world, you are faced with an endless regression.”
Taoism
Main articles: Chinese creation myth and Tian
The cosmology of Taoism beliefs is a complex mixture of different beliefs. There is a “primordial universe” Wuji (philosophy), and Hongjun Laozu, water or qi. It transformed into Taiji and multiplied into everything. 
The Pangu legend tells a formless chaos coalesced into a cosmic egg. Pangu emerged (or woke up) and separated Yin from Yang with a swing of his giant axe, creating the Earth (murky Yin) and theSky (clear Yang). To keep them separated, Pangu stood between them and pushed up the Sky. After Pangu died, he became everything. See also Bahá’í  cosmology
Raelian cosmology
Zoroastrian cosmology
 References:^ CCC Search Result – Paragraph # 291^ LDS Church (1995) (“Each [human] is a beloved spirit son or daughter of heavenly parents.”); LDS Church (1997, p. 11) (“Man, as a spirit, was begotten and born of heavenly parents, and reared to maturity in the eternal mansions of the Father.”).^ http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e459?_hi=10&_pos=2^ “This universe is not created nor sustained by anyone; It is self sustaining, without any base or support” “Nishpaadito Na Kenaapi Na Dhritah Kenachichch Sah Swayamsiddho Niradhaaro Gagane Kimtvavasthitah” [Yogasastra of Acarya Hemacandra 4.106] Tr by Dr. A. S. Gopani^ See Hemacandras description of universe in Yogasastra “…Think of this loka as similar to man standing akimbo…”4.103-6
See Also:
Biblical Cosmology,
Brahma Cosmogony,
Cosmological argument,
Cosmology Dating Creation,
Day-Age Creationism
Deism Existence, Gap Creationism,
Great Spirit,
Intelligent designer,
Jainism and non-creationism,
Old Earth Creationism
Tzimtzum
Young Earth Creationism
  The term Alpha and Omega comes from the phrase “I am the alpha and the omega” (Koiné Greek: an appellation of Jesus in the Book of Revelation (verses 1:8, 21:6, and 22:13). In the Book of Revelation, it reads “I am the Alpha and Omega, the first and the last.”The first part of this phrase (“I am the Alpha and Omega”) is first found in Chapter 1 verse 8, and is found in every manuscript of Revelation that has 1v8. Several later manuscripts repeat “I am the Alpha and Omega” in 1v11 too, but it does not receive support here from most of the oldest manuscripts, including the Alexandrine, Sinaitic, and Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus. It is, therefore, omitted in some modern translations. Scholar Robert Young stated, with regards to “I am the Alpha and Omega” in 1v11, that the “oldest MSS. omit” it.
Its meaning is found in the fact that alpha (?) and omega (O) are respectively the first and last letters of the Classical (Ionic) Greek alphabet. This would be similar to referring to someone in English as the “A and Z”. Thus, twice when the title appears it is further clarified with the additional title “the beginning and the end” (21:6, 22:13).
Though many commentators and dictionaries apply this title both to God and to Christ, some secular sources argue otherwise. Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament (1974) claims: “It cannot be absolutely certain that the writer meant to refer to the Lord Jesus specifically here… There is no real incongruity in supposing, also, that the writer here meant to refer to God as such.” However, most Christian denominations teach that it does apply to Jesus and God as they are one; Revelation Chapter 22 has Jesus himself saying the words: “I am the Alpha and Omega, the First and the Last”.Therefore the letters Alpha and Omega in juxtaposition are often used as a Christian visual symbol (see examples). 
The letters were shown hanging from the arms of the cross in Early Christian art, and some crosses in precious metal have formed letters hanging in this way. In fact, despite always being in Greek, the letters became more common in Western than Eastern Orthodox Christian art. They are often shown to the left and right of Christ’s head, sometimes within his halo, where they take the place of the christogram used in Orthodox art.
This symbol was suggested by the Apocalypse, where many believe that Christ, as well as the Father, is “the First and the Last” (ii, 8); “the Alpha and Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end” (cf., xxii, 13; i, 8). Clement of Alexandria (2nd century, philosopher and commentator on pagan and Christian information) speaks of the Word as “the Alpha and the Omega of Whom alone the end becomes beginning, and ends again at the original beginning without any break” (Stromata, IV, 25). 
Tertullian (lawyer, theologian) also alludes to Christ as the Alpha and Omega (De Monogamiâ, v), and from Prudentius (Cathemer., ix, 10) we learn that in the fourth century the interpretation of the apocalyptic letters was still the same: “Alpha et Omega cognominatus, ipse fons et clausula, Omnium quae sunt, fuerunt, quaeque post futura sunt.” It was, however, in the monuments of early Christianity that the symbolic Alpha and Omega had their greatest vogue.
This phrase is interpreted by many Christians to mean that Jesus existed from eternity (as the second person of the Trinity), and will exist eternally. Alpha and omega are the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, signifying that God is “the beginning and the end,” or eternal. The symbols were used in early Christianity and appear in the Roman catacombs.
The Alpha and Omega symbols are often combined with the cross, chi rho, or other Christian symbols. 
Judaism
In Rabbinic literature, the word emet (meaning “truth”), one of the names of God in Judaism, has been interpreted as consisting of the first, middle and final letters of the Hebrew alphabet. 
Islam
The Qur’an gives al’Awwal meaning “The First” and al’Akhir , meaning “The Last” as two of the names of God: 57:3. Babylonian cosmology
Babylonian literature (1900-1200 BC) Plurality of heavens and earths The Earth and Heavens are a “spatial whole, even one of round shape,” revolving around the “cult-place of the deity”[clarification needed] rather than the Earth,[6] and there is a plurality of heavens and earths. Brahmanda (Hindu Cosmology) Hindu Rigveda(1700–1100 BC) Cyclical or oscillating, Infinite in time The universe sustains for around 311,040,000,000,000 years, or 100 Years of Brahma. There is a smaller period of unmanifestation in around 4 billion years, that is, one Day of Brahma. The universe cycles between expansion and total collapse. After one cycle of the life of Brahma another universe follows for infinity, each of which exists for a time period of 311 trillion 40 billion years. It also speaks of an infinite number of universes at one given point of time. The Universe expanded from a concentrated form, a point called a Bindu. The universe, as a living entity, is bound to the perpetual cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. Atomist universe Anaxagoras (500-428 BC) & later.
Epicurus Infinite in extent – The universe contains only two things: an infinite number of tiny seeds, or atoms, and the void of infinite extent. All atoms are made of the same substance, but differ in size and shape. Objects are formed from atom aggregations and decay back into atoms. Incorporates Leucippus’ principle of causality: “nothing happens at random; everything happens out of reason and necessity.” The universe was not ruled by gods. 
Pythagorean universe Philolaus (d. 390 BC) Existence of a “Central Fire” at the center of the Universe. At the center of the Universe is a central fire, around which the Earth, Sun, Moon and planets revolve uniformly. 
The Sun revolves around the central fire once a year, the stars are immobile. The earth in its motion maintains the same hidden face towards the central fire, hence it is never seen. This is the first known non-geocentric model of the Universe.[8]Stoic universe Stoics(300 BC – 200 AD) Island universe 
The Cosmos is finite and surrounded by an infinite void. It is in a state of flux, as it pulsates in size and periodically passes through upheavals and conflagrations. 
Aristotelian universe Aristotle (384-322 BC) Geocentric, static, steady state, finite extent, infinite time Spherical earth is surrounded by concentric celestial spheres. Universe exists unchanged throughout eternity. Contains a fifth element, called aether (later known as quintessence), added to the four Classical elements. Aristarchean universe Aristarchus(circa 280 BC) Heliocentric Earth rotates daily on its axis and revolves annually about the sun in a circular orbit. Sphere of fixed stars is centered about the sun. Seleucian universe Seleucus of Seleucia(circa 190 BC) 
Heliocentric Modifications to the Aristarchean universe, with the inclusion of the tide phenomenon to explain heliocentrism.
Ptolemaic model (based on Aristotelian universe) Ptolemy(2nd century AD) Geocentric Universe orbits about a stationary Earth. Planets move in circular epicycles, each having a center that moved in a larger circular orbit (called an eccentric or a deferent) around a center-point near the Earth. The use of equants added another level of complexity and allowed astronomers to predict the positions of the planets. 
The most successful universe model of all time, using the criterion of longevity. Almagest (the Great System).
 Aryabhatan model Aryabhata (499) Geocentric or Heliocentric The Earth rotates and the planets move in elliptical orbits, possibly around either the Earth or the Sun. It is uncertain whether the model is geocentric or heliocentric due to planetary orbits given with respect to both the Earth and the Sun. Abrahamic universe Medieval philosophers (500-1200) Finite in time.
 A universe that is finite in time and has a beginning is proposed by the Christian philosopher, John Philoponus, who argues against the ancient Greek notion of an infinite past. Logical arguments supporting a finite universe are developed by the early Muslim philosopher Alkindus, the Jewish philosopher Saadia Gaon and the Muslim theologianAlgazel. 
Multiversal cosmology Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209) 
Multiverse, multiple worlds & universes There exists an infinite outer spac
e beyond the known world, and God has the power to fill the vacuum with an infinite number of universes. 
 Maragha models Maragha school(1259–1528) Geocentric Various modifications to Ptolemaic model and Aristotelian universe, including rejection ofequant and eccentrics at Maragheh observatory, and introduction of Tusi-couple by Al-Tusi. Alternative models later proposed, including the first accurate lunar model by Ibn al-Shatir, a model rejecting stationary Earth in favour of Earth’s rotation by Ali Kusçu, and planetary model incorporating “circular inertia” by Al-Birjandi. Nilakanthan model Nilakantha Somayaji (1444–1544) 
Geocentric and Heliocentric A universe in which the planets orbit the Sun and the Sun orbits the Earth, similar to the later Tychonic system. Copernican universe Nicolaus Copernicus (1543) Heliocentric The geocentric Maragha model of Ibn al-Shatir adapted to meet the requirements of the ancient heliocentric Aristarchean universe in his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium. 
Tychonic system Tycho Brahe(1546–1601) Geocentric and Heliocentric A universe in which the planets orbit the Sun and the Sun orbits the Earth, similar to the earlier Nilakanthan model. Static Newtonian Sir Isaac Newton(1642–1727) Static(evolving), steady state, infinite Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle. Matter on the large scale is uniformly distributed. Gravitationally balanced but unstable.
Cartesian Vortex universe René Descartes 17th Century Static (evolving), steady state, Infinite 
A system of huge swirling whirlpools of aethereal or fine matter produces what we would call gravitational effects. His vacuum was not empty. All space was filled with matter that swirled around in large and small vortices.
Hierarchical universe Immanuel Kant,
Johann Lambert 18th century Static (evolving), steady state, infinite Matter is clustered on ever larger scales of hierarchy. Matter is endlessly being recycled. Einstein Universe with a cosmological constant Albert Einstein1917 Static (nominally). Bounded (finite) “Matter without motion.” Contains uniformly distributed matter. Uniformly curved spherical space; based on Riemann’s hypersphere. Curvature is set equal to ?. In effect ? is equivalent to a repulsive force which counteracts gravity. Unstable. De Sitter universe Willem de Sitter1917 Expanding flat space.
Steady state. ? > 0 “Motion without matter.” Only apparently static. Based on Einstein’s General Relativity. Space expands with constant acceleration. Scale factor (radius of universe) increases exponentially, i.e. constant inflation. MacMillan universe William Duncan MacMillan 1920s Static &steady state.
New matter is created from radiation. Starlight is perpetually recycled into new matter particles.
Friedmann universe of spherical space Alexander Friedmann 1922 Spherical expanding space. k= +1 ; no ? Positive curvature. Curvature constant k = +1Expands then recollapses. Spatially closed (finite).Friedmann universe of hyperbolic space Alexander Friedmann 1924 Hyperbolic expanding space.
k= -1 ; no ? Negative curvature. Said to be infinite (but ambiguous). Unbounded. Expands forever.
Dirac large numbers hypothesis Paul Dirac 1930s Expanding Demands a large variation in G, which decreases with time. Gravity weakens as universe evolves.
Friedmann zero-curvature, a.k.a. the Einstein-DeSitter universe Einstein & DeSitter 1932 Expanding flat space. 
k= 0 ; ? = 0 Critical density Curvature constant k = 0. Said to be infinite (but ambiguous). ‘Unbounded cosmos of limited extent.’ Expands forever. ‘Simplest’ of all known universes. Named after but not considered by Friedmann. Has a deceleration term q =½ which means that its expansion rate slows down. 
BIG BANG THEORY = Only One Theory! 
The original Big Bang. a.k.a. Friedmann-Lemaître Model Georges Lemaître1927-29 Expansion? > 0 ? > |Gravity| ? is positive and has a magnitude greater than Gravity. Universe has initial high density state (‘primeval atom’). Followed by a two stage expansion. ? is used to destabilize the universe. (Lemaître is considered to be the father of the big bang model.)Oscillating universe(a.k.a. Friedmann-Einstein; was latter’s 1st choice after rejecting his own 1917 model) Favored by Friedmann 1920s Expanding and contracting in cycles Time is endless and beginningless; thus avoids the beginning-of-time paradox.
Perpetual cycles of big Bang followed by the big Crunch.  Eddington Arthur Eddington1930 First Static then Expands Static Einstein 1917 universe with its instability disturbed into expansion mode; with relentless matter dilution becomes a DeSitter universe.
 Dominates gravity.
Milne universe of kinematic relativity Edward Milne, 1933, 1935;William H. McCrea, 1930s Kinematic expansion with NO space expansion Rejects general relativity and the expanding space paradigm. Gravity not included as initial assumption. Obeys cosmological principle & rules of special relativity. The Milne expanding universe consists of a finite spherical cloud of particles (or galaxies) that expands WITHIN flat space which is infinite and otherwise empty. 
It has a center and a cosmic edge (the surface of the particle cloud) which expands at light speed. His explanation of gravity was elaborate and unconvincing. For instance, his universe has an infinite number of particles, hence infinite mass, within a finite cosmic volume.
Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker class of models Howard Robertson, Arthur Walker, 1935 Uniformly expanding Class of universes that are homogenous and isotropic. Spacetime separates into uniformly curved space and cosmic time common to all co-moving observers. The formulation system is now known as the FLRW or Robertson-Walker metrics of cosmic time and curved space.
Steady-state expanding (Bondi & Gold) Herman Bondi,Thomas Gold1948 Expanding, steady state, infinite Matter creation rate maintains constant density. Continuous creation out of nothing from nowhere. 
Exponential expansion.
Deceleration term q = -1.Steady-state expanding (Hoyle) Fred Hoyle 1948 Expanding, steady state; but unstable Matter creation rate maintains constant density. But since matter creation rate must be exactly balanced with the space expansion rate the system is unstable.  Ambiplasma Hannes Alfvén1965 Oskar Klein Cellular universe, expanding by means of matter-antimatter annihilation Based on the concept of plasma cosmology. The universe is viewed as meta-galaxiesdivided by double layers —hence its bubble-like nature. Other universes are formed from other bubbles. Ongoing cosmic matter-antimatter annihilations keep the bubbles separated and moving apart preventing them from interacting. Brans-Dicke Carl H. Brans;Robert H. Dicke Expanding Based on Mach’s principle. G varies with time as universe expands. “But nobody is quite sure what Mach’s principle actually means.” 
Cosmic inflation
 Alan Guth 1980 Big Bang with modification to solve horizon problem and flatness problem. Based on the concept of hot inflation. The universe is viewed as a multiple quantum flux —hence its bubble-like nature. Other universes are formed from other bubbles. Ongoing cosmic expansion kept the bubbles separated and moving apart preventing them from interacting. Eternal Inflation (a multiple universe model) Andreï Linde 1983 Big Bang with cosmic inflation
A multiverse, based on the concept of cold inflation, in which inflationary events occur at random each with independent initial conditions; some expand into bubble universes supposedly like our entire cosmos. Bubbles nucleate in a spacetime foam.  Physical cosmology, as a branch of astronomy, is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its formation and evolution. For most of human history, it was a branch of metaphysics and religion. 
Cosmology
as a science originated with the Copernican principle, which implies that celestial bodies obey identical physical laws to those on Earth, and Newtonian mechanics, which first allowed us to understand those laws. Physical cosmology, as it is now understood, began with the twentieth century development of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity and better astronomical observations of extremely distant objects.  These advances made it possible to speculate about the origin of the universe, and allowed scientists to establish the Big Bang Theory as the leading cosmological model. Some researchers still advocate a handful of alternative cosmologies; however, cosmologists generally agree that the Big Bang theory best explains observations.
Cosmology draws heavily on the work of many disparate areas of research in .  Areas relevant to cosmology include particle physics experiments and theory, including string theory,astrophysics, general relativity, and plasma physics. Thus, cosmology unites the physics of the largest structures in the universe with the physics of the smallest structures in the universe.Universal DisciplinesIn recent times, physics and astrophysics have played a central role in shaping the understanding of the universe through scientific observation and experiment. What is known as physical cosmology shaped through both mathematics and observation the analysis of the whole universe. It is generally understood to begin with the Big Bang combined with cosmic inflation – an expansion of space from which the universe is thought to have emerged ~13.7±0.2×109 (roughly 13.5-13.9 billion) years ago.
Physical cosmologists propose that the history of the universe has been governed entirely by physical laws. Such theories of an impersonal universe governed by physical laws were first proposed by Roger Bacon.
Between the domains of religion and science, stands the philosophical perspective of metaphysical cosmology. This ancient field of study seeks to draw intuitive conclusions about the nature of the universe, man, a supernatural creator and/or their relationships based on the extension of some set of presumed facts borrowed from spiritual experience and/or observation.
Metaphysical cosmology has also been described as the placing of man in the universe in relationship to all other entities. This is exampled by the observation made by Marcus Aurelius of a man’s place in that relationship: “He who does not know what the world is does not know where he is, and he who does not know for what purpose the world exists, does not know who he is, nor what the world is.” Cosmology is often an important aspect of the creation myths of religions that seek to explain the existence and nature of reality. In some cases, views about the creation (cosmogony) and destruction (eschatology) of the universe play a central role in shaping a framework of religious cosmology for understanding humanity’s role in the universe.
A more contemporary distinction between religion and philosophy, esoteric cosmology is distinguished from religion in its less tradition-bound construction and reliance on modern “intellectual understanding” rather than faith, and from philosophy in its emphasis on spirituality as a formative concept. History of Physical Cosmology. See also: Timeline of cosmology and List of cosmologists.
Modern cosmology developed along tandem tracks of theory and observation. In 1915, Albert Einstein formulated his theory of general relativity, which provided a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time. At the time, physicists believed in a perfectly static universe that had no beginning or end. Einstein added a cosmological constant to his theory in order to force it to model a static universe containing matter. This so-called Einstein universe is, however, unstable; it will eventually start expanding or contracting. The cosmological solutions of general relativity were found by Alexander Friedmann, whose equations describe the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe, which may expand or contract.
In the 1910s, Vesto Slipher (and later Carl Wilhelm Wirtz) interpreted the red shift of spiral nebulae as a Doppler shift that indicated they were receding from Earth. However, it is difficult to determine the distance to astronomical objects. One way is to compare the physical size of an object to its angular size, but a physical size must be assumed to do this. Another method is to measure the brightness of an object and assume an intrinsic luminosity, from which the distance may be determined using the inverse square law. Due to the difficulty of using these methods, they did not realize that the nebulae were actually galaxies outside our own Milky Way, nor did they speculate about the cosmological implications. In 1927, the Belgian Roman Catholic priest Georges Lemaître independently derived the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker equations and proposed, on the basis of the recession of spiral nebulae, that the universe began with the “explosion” of a “primeval atom”—which was later called the Big Bang. In 1929, Edwin Hubble provided an observational basis for Lemaître’s theory. Hubble showed that the spiral nebulae were galaxies by determining their distances using measurements of the brightness of Cepheid variable stars. He discovered a relationship between the redshift of a galaxy and its distance. He interpreted this as evidence that the galaxies are receding from Earth in every direction at speeds directly proportional to their distance. This fact is now known as Hubble’s law, though the numerical factor Hubble found relating recessional velocity and distance was off by a factor of ten, due to not knowing at the time about different types of Cepheid variables.
Given the cosmological principle, Hubble’s law suggested that the universe was expanding. There were two primary explanations put forth for the expansion of the universe. One was Lemaître’s Big Bang theory, advocated and developed by George Gamow. The other possibility was Fred Hoyle’s steady state model in which new matter would be created as the galaxies moved away from each other. In this model, the universe is roughly the same at any point in time.
For a number of years the support for these theories was evenly divided. However, the observational evidence began to support the idea that the universe evolved from a hot dense state. The discovery of the cosmic microwave background in 1965 lent strong support to the Big Bang model, and since the precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background by the Cosmic Background Explorer in the early 1990s, few cosmologists have seriously proposed other theories of the origin and evolution of the cosmos. One consequence of this is that in standard general relativity, the universe began with a singularity, as demonstrated by Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose in the 1960s.
Light elements, primarily hydrogen and helium, were created in the Big Bang. These light elements were spread too fast and too thinly in the Big Bang process (see nucleosynthesis) to form the most stable medium-sized atomic nuclei, like iron and nickel. This fact allows for later energy release, as such intermediate-sized elements are formed in our era. 
The formation of such atoms powers the steady energy-releasing reactions in stars, and also contributes to sudden energy releases, such as in novae. Gravitational collapse of matter into black holes is also thought to power the most energetic processes, generally seen at the centers of galaxies (see quasars and in general active galaxies).Cosmologists are still unable to explain all cosmological phenomena purely on the basis of known conventional forms of energy, for example those related to the accelerating expansion of the universe, and therefore invoke a yet unexplored form of energy called dark energy to account for certain cosmological observations. 
One hypothesis is that dark energy is the energy of virtual particles (which mathematically must exist in vacuum due to the uncertainty principle).There is no unambiguous way to define the total energy of the universe in the current best theory of gravity, general relativity. As a result it remains controversial whether one can meaningfully say that total energy is conserved in an expanding universe. 
For instance, each photon that travels through intergalactic space loses energy due to the redshift effect. This energy is not obviously transferred to any other system, so seems to be permanently lost. Nevertheless some cosmologists insist that energy is conserved in some sense.
Thermodynamics of the universe is a field of study to explore which form of energy dominates the cosmos – relativistic particles which are referred to as radiation, or non-relativistic particles which are referred to as matter. The former are particles whose rest mass is zero or negligible compared to their energy, and therefore move at the speed of light or very close to it; the latter are particles whose kinetic energy is much lower than their rest mass and therefore move much slower than the speed of light.
As the universe expands, both matter and radiation in it become diluted. However, the universe also cools down, meaning that the average energy per particle is getting smaller with time. Therefore the radiation becomes weaker, and dilutes faster than matter. Thus with the expansion of the universe radiation becomes less dominant than matter. In the very early universe radiation dictates the rate of deceleration of the universe’s expansion, and the universe is said to be ‘radiation dominated’. 
At later times, when the average energy per photon is roughly 10 eV and lower, matter dictates the rate of deceleration and the universe is said to be ‘matter dominated’. The intermediate case is not treated well analytically. As the expansion of the universe continues, matter dilutes even further and the cosmological constant becomes dominant, leading to an acceleration in the universe’s expansion. History of the UniverseSee also: Timeline of the Big Bang
The history of the universe is a central issue in cosmology. The history of the universe is divided into different periods called epochs, according to the dominant forces and processes in each period. The standard cosmological model is known as the CDM model?
CDM model. 
Equations of motion
Main article: Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric.
The equations of motion governing the universe as a whole are derived from general relativity with a small, positive cosmological constant.[4]The solution is an expanding universe; due to this expansion the radiation and matter in the universe are cooled down and become diluted. At first, the expansion is slowed down by gravitation due to the radiation and matter content of the universe. However, as these become diluted, the cosmological constant becomes more dominant and the expansion of the universe starts to accelerate rather than decelerate. In our universe this has already happened, billions of years ago.
Particle physics in cosmology
Main article: Particle physics in cosmology
Particle physics is important to the behavior of the early universe, since the early universe was so hot that the average energy density was very high. Because of this, scattering processes and decay of unstable particles are important in cosmology.
As a rule of thumb, a scattering or a decay process is cosmologically important in a certain cosmological epoch if the time scale describing that process is smaller or comparable to the time scale of the expansion of the universe, which is 1 / H with H being the Hubble constant at that time. This is roughly equal to the age of the universe at that time.
Timeline of the Big Bang 
Main article: Timeline of the Big Bang 
Observations suggest that the universe began around 13.7 billion years ago. Since then, the evolution of the universe has passed through three phases. The very early universe, which is still poorly understood, was the split second in which the universe was so hot that particles had energies higher than those currently accessible in particle accelerators on Earth. Therefore, while the basic features of this epoch have been worked out in the Big Bang theory, the details are largely based on educated guesses. Following this, in the early universe, the evolution of the universe proceeded according to known high energy physics. This is when the first protons, electrons and neutrons formed, then nuclei and finally atoms. With the formation of neutral hydrogen, the cosmic microwave background was emitted. Finally, the epoch of structure formation began, when matter started to aggregate into the first stars and quasars, and ultimately galaxies, clusters of galaxies andsuperclusters formed. The future of the universe is not yet firmly known, but according to the CDM model it will continue expanding forever.Areas of study 
Below, some of the most active areas of inquiry in cosmology are described, in roughly chronological order. This does not include all of the Big Bang cosmology, which is presented in Timeline of the Big Bang.The very early universeWhile the early, hot universe appears to be well explained by the Big Bang from roughly 10-33 seconds onwards, there are several problems. One is that there is no compelling reason, using current particle physics, to expect the universe to be flat, homogeneous and isotropic (see the cosmological principle). Moreover, grand unified theories of particle physics suggest that there should be magnetic monopoles in the universe, which have not been found. These problems are resolved by a brief period of cosmic inflation, which drives the universe to flatness, smooths out anisotropies and inhomogeneities to the observed level, and exponentially dilutes the monopoles. The physical model behind cosmic inflation is extremely simple, however it has not yet been confirmed by particle physics, and there are difficult problems reconciling inflation and quantum field theory. Some cosmologists think that string theory and brane cosmology will provide an alternative to inflation.
Another major problem in cosmology is what caused the universe to contain more particles than antiparticles. Cosmologists can observationally deduce that the universe is not split into regions of matter and antimatter. If it were, there would be X-rays and gamma rays produced as a result of annihilation, but this is not observed. This problem is called the baryon asymmetry, and the theory to describe the resolution is called baryogenesis. The theory of baryogenesis was worked out by Andrei Sakharov in 1967, and requires a violation of the particle physics symmetry, called CP-symmetry, between matter and antimatter. Particle accelerators, however, measure too small a violation of CP-symmetry to account for the baryon asymmetry. Cosmologists and particle physicists are trying to find additional violations of the CP-symmetry in the early universe that might account for the baryon asymmetry.
Both the problems of baryogenesis and cosmic inflation are very closely related to particle physics, and their resolution might come from high energy theory and experiment, rather than through observations of the universe.
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
Main article: Big bang nucleosynthesis
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is the theory of the formation of the elements in the early universe. 
It finished when the universe was about three minutes old and its temperature dropped below that at which nuclear fusion could occur. Big Bang nucleosynthesis had a brief period during which it could operate, so only the very lightest elements were produced. Starting from hydrogen ions (protons), it principally produced
deuterium, helium-4 and lithium. Other elements were produced in only trace abundances. The basic theory of nucleosynthesis was developed in 1948 by George Gamow, Ralph Asher Alpher and Robert Herman. It was used for many years as a probe of physics at the time of the Big Bang, as the theory of Big Bang nucleosynthesis connects the abundances of primordial light elements with the features of the early universe. Specifically, it can be used to test the equivalence principle, to probe dark matter, and test neutrino physics. Some cosmologists have proposed that Big Bang nucleosynthesis suggests there is a fourth “sterile” species of neutrino.
Cosmic microwave background
Main article: Cosmic microwave background
The cosmic microwave background is radiation left over from decoupling after the epoch of recombination when neutral atoms first formed. At this point, radiation produced in the Big Bang stopped Thomson scattering from charged ions. The radiation, first observed in 1965 by Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson, has a perfect thermal black-body spectrum. It has a temperature of 2.7 kelvins today and is isotropic to one part in 105. Cosmological perturbation theory, which describes the evolution of slight inhomogeneities in the early universe, has allowed cosmologists to precisely calculate the angular power spectrum of the radiation, and it has been measured by the recent satellite experiments (COBE and WMAP) and many ground and balloon-based experiments (such as Degree Angular Scale Interferometer, Cosmic Background Imager, and Boomerang). 
One of the goals of these efforts is to measure the basic parameters of the Lambda-CDM model with increasing accuracy, as well as to test the predictions of the Big Bang model and look for new physics. The recent measurements made by WMAP, for example, have placed limits on the neutrino masses.
NEWER
Newer experiments, such as QUIET and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, are trying to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. These measurements are expected to provide further confirmation of the theory as well as information about cosmic inflation, and the so-called secondary anisotropies, such as the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect and Sachs-Wolfe effect, which are caused by interaction between galaxies and clusters with the cosmic microwave background.
Formation and evolution of large-scale structure
Main articles: Large-scale structure of the cosmos, Structure formation, and Galaxy formation and evolution
Understanding the formation and evolution of the largest and earliest structures (i.e., quasars, galaxies, clusters and superclusters) is one of the largest efforts in cosmology. Cosmologists study a model of hierarchical structure formation in which structures form from the bottom up, with smaller objects forming first, while the largest objects, such as superclusters, are still assembling. One way to study structure in the universe is to survey the visible galaxies, in order to construct a three-dimensional picture of the galaxies in the universe and measure the matter power spectrum. This is the approach of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey.
Another tool for understanding structure formation is simulations, which cosmologists use to study the gravitational aggregation of matter in the universe, as it clusters into filaments, superclusters and voids. Most simulations contain only non-baryonic cold dark matter, which should suffice to understand the universe on the largest scales, as there is much more dark matter in the universe than visible, baryonic matter. More advanced simulations are starting to include baryons and study the formation of individual galaxies. Cosmologists study these simulations to see if they agree with the galaxy surveys, and to understand any discrepancy.
Other, complementary observations to measure the distribution of matter in the distant universe and to probe reionization include:
The Lyman alpha forest, which allows cosmologists to measure the distribution of neutral atomic hydrogen gas in the early universe, by measuring the absorption of light from distant quasars by the gas.
The 21 centimeter absorption line of neutral atomic hydrogen also provides a sensitive test of cosmology.
 Weak lensing, the distortion of a distant image by gravitational lensing due to dark matter.
These will help cosmologists settle the question of when and how structure formed in the universe.
Dark Matter
Main article: Dark matter
Evidence from Big Bang nucleosynthesis, the cosmic microwave background and structure formation suggests that about 23% of the mass of the universe consists of non-baryonic dark matter, whereas only 4% consists of visible, baryonic matter. The gravitational effects of dark matter are well understood, as it behaves like a cold, non-radiative fluid that forms haloes around galaxies. Dark matter has never been detected in the laboratory, and the particle physics nature of dark matter remains completely unknown. Without observational constraints, there are a number of candidates, such as a stable supersymmetric particle, a weakly interacting massive particle, an axion, and a massive compact halo object. Alternatives to the dark matter hypothesis include a modification of gravity at small accelerations (MOND) or an effect from brane cosmology. 
Dark Energy
Main article: Dark energy
If the universe is flat, there must be an additional component making up 73% (in addition to the 23% dark matter and 4% baryons) of the energy density of the universe. This is called dark energy. In order not to interfere with Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background, it must not cluster in haloes like baryons and dark matter. There is strong observational evidence for dark energy, as the total energy density of the universe is known through constraints on the flatness of the universe, but the amount of clustering matter is tightly measured, and is much less than this. The case for dark energy was strengthened in 1999, when measurements demonstrated that the expansion of the universe has begun to gradually accelerate.
Apart from its density and its clustering properties, nothing is known about dark energy. Quantum field theory predicts a cosmological constant much like dark energy, but 120 orders of magnitude larger than that observed. Steven Weinberg and a number of string theorists (see string landscape) have used this as evidence for the anthropic principle, which suggests that the cosmological constant is so small because life (and thus physicists, to make observations) cannot exist in a universe with a large cosmological constant, but many people find this an unsatisfying explanation. 
Other possible explanations for dark energy include quintessence or a modification of gravity on the largest scales. The effect on cosmology of the dark energy that these models describe is given by the dark energy’s equation of state, which varies depending upon the theory. The nature of dark energy is one of the most challenging problems in cosmology.
A better understanding of dark energy is likely to solve the problem of the ultimate fate of the universe. In the current cosmological epoch, the accelerated expansion due to dark energy is preventing structures larger than superclusters from forming. It is not known whether the acceleration will continue indefinitely, perhaps even increasing until a big rip, or whether it will eventually reverse.
Other areas of inquiry
Cosmologists also study: 
whether primordial black holes were formed in our universe, and what happened to them.
The GZK cutoff for high-energy cosmic rays, and whether it signals a failure of special relativity at high energies the equivalence principle, whether or not Einstein’s general theory of relativity is the correct theory of gravitation, and if the fundamental laws of physics are the same everywhere in the universe.
See Also:
Physics portal  String cosmology
Physical Ontology List of Cosmologists
References:
 For an overview, see George FR Ellis (2006). “Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology”. In Jeremy Butterfield & John Earman. Philosophy of Physics (Handbook of the Philosophy of Science) 3 volume set. North Holland. pp. 1183ff. arXiv:astro-ph/0602280. ISBN 0444515607.^ Science 20 June 2003:Vol. 300. no. 5627, pp. 1914 – 1918 Throwing Light on Dark Energy, Robert P. Kirshner. Accessed December 2006^ e.g. Liddle, A.. An Introduction to Modern Cosmology. Wiley. ISBN 0-470-84835-9. This argues cogently “Energy is always, always, always conserved.”^ P. Ojeda and H. Rosu (Jun 2006). “Supersymmetry of FRW barotropic cosmologies”. Internat. J. Theoret. Phys. (Springer) 45: 1191–1196.arXiv:gr-qc/0510004. Bibcode 2006IJTP…45.1152R. doi:10.1007/s10773-006-9123-2.
Further Reading:
Popular-
Brian Greene (2005). The Fabric of the Cosmos. Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 0-14-101111-4.Alan Guth (1997). The Inflationary Universe: The Quest for a New Theory of Cosmic Origins. Random House. ISBN 0-224-04448-6.Hawking, Stephen W. (1988). A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. Bantam Books, Inc. ISBN 0-553-38016-8.Hawking, Stephen W. (2001). The Universe in a Nutshell. Bantam Books, Inc. ISBN 0-553-80202-X.Simon Singh (2005). 
Big Bang: the origins of the universe. Fourth Estate. ISBN 0-00-716221-9.Steven Weinberg (1993; 1978). The First Three Minutes. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02437-8.clic model Paul Steinhardt;
Neil Turok 2002 Expanding and contracting in cycles; M theory. Two parallel orbifold planes or M-branes collide periodically in a higher dimensional space. With quintessence or dark energy
Cyclic model Lauris Baum;
Paul Frampton 2007 Solution ofTolman’s entropy problem Phantom dark energy fragments universe into large number of disconnected patches. Our patch contracts containing only dark energy with zero entropy.  Table notes: the term “static” simply means not expanding and not contracting. Symbol G represents Newton’s gravitational constant; 
 (Lambda) is the cosmological constant. 
Physical Cosmology
Main article: Physical cosmology
Physical cosmology is the branch of physics and astrophysics that deals with the study of the physical origins and evolution of the Universe. It also includes the study of the nature of the Universe on its very largest scales. In its earliest form it was what is now known as celestial mechanics, the study of the heavens. 
The Greek philosophers Aristarchus of Samos, Aristotle and Ptolemy proposed different cosmological theories. In particular, the geocentric Ptolemaic system was the accepted theory to explain the motion of the heavens until Nicolaus Copernicus, and subsequently Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei proposed a heliocentric system in the 16th century. This is known as one of the most famous examples of epistemological rupture in physical cosmology. 
With Isaac Newton and the 1687 publication of Principia Mathematica, the problem of the motion of the heavens was finally solved. Newton provided a physical mechanism for Kepler’s laws and his law of universal gravitation allowed the anomalies in previous systems, caused by gravitational interaction between the planets, to be resolved. A fundamental difference between Newton’s cosmology and those preceding it was the Copernican principle that the bodies on earth obey the same physical laws as all the celestial bodies. This was a crucial philosophical advance in physical cosmology.
Modern Scientific Cosmology
Modern scientific cosmology is usually considered to have begun in 1917 with Albert Einstein’s publication of his final modification of general relativity in the paper “Cosmological Considerations of the General Theory of Relativity,” (although this paper was not widely available outside of Germany until the end of World War I). General relativity prompted cosmogonists such as Willem de Sitter, Karl Schwarzschild and Arthur Eddington to explore the astronomical consequences of the theory, which enhanced the growing ability of astronomers to study very distant objects. Prior to this (and for some time afterwards), physicists assumed that the Universe was static and unchanging.
In parallel to this dynamic approach to cosmology, one long-standing debate about the structure of the cosmos was coming to a climax. Mount Wilson astronomer Harlow Shapley championed the model of a cosmos made up of the Milky Way star system only ; while Heber D. Curtis argued for the idea that spiral nebulae were star systems in their own right – island universes. This difference of ideas came to a climax with the organization of the Great Debate at the meeting of the (US) National Academy of Sciences in Washington on 26 April 1920. 
The resolution of this debate came with the detection of novae in the Andromeda galaxy by Edwin Hubble in 1923 and 1924. Their distance established spiral nebulae well beyond the edge of the Milky Way and has galaxies of their own.
Subsequent modeling of the universe explored the possibility that the cosmological constant introduced by Einstein in his 1917 paper may result in an expanding universe, depending on its value. Thus the big bang model was proposed by the Belgian priest Georges Lemaître in 1927 which was subsequently corroborated by Edwin Hubble’s discovery of the red shift in 1929 and later by the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation by Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson in 1964. These findings were a first step to rule out some of many alternative physical cosmologies.
Recent observations made by the COBE and WMAP satellites observing this background radiation have effectively, in many scientists’ eyes, transformed cosmology from a highly speculative science into a predictive science, as these observations matched predictions made by a theory called Cosmic inflation, which is a modification of the standard big bang model. This has led many to refer to modern times as the “Golden age of cosmology.”(Source: Wikipedia)
Further reading
Popular
Brian Greene (2005). The Fabric of the Cosmos. Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 0-14-101111-4.Alan Guth (1997). The Inflationary Universe: The Quest for a New Theory of Cosmic Origins. Random House. ISBN 0-224-04448-6.Hawking, Stephen W. (1988). A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. Bantam Books, Inc. ISBN 0-553-38016-8.Hawking, Stephen W. (2001). The Universe in a Nutshell. Bantam Books, Inc. ISBN 0-553-80202-X.Simon Singh (2005). Big Bang: the origins of the universe. Fourth Estate. ISBN 0-00-716221-9.Steven Weinberg (1993; 1978). The First Three Minutes. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02437-8 
See also:
Astronomy portal Absolute time and space
Astrology
AstronomyList of astrophysicists
Non-standard cosmology
TaijiTaoMahapurana (Jainism)From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mahapurana is a major Jain text composed largely by Acharya Jinasena during the rule of Rashtrakuta ruler Amoghavarshaand completed by his pupil Gunabhadra in the 9th century CE. The section composed by Gunabhadra is called “Uttarapurana”. The completed and edited text was released by Lokasena, pupil of Gunabhadra in a celebration at Bankapura in the court of Vira-Bankeyarasa in 898 CE. The first 42 Parvans of this text were written by Jinasena, while remaining 34 Parvans were composed by Gunabhara.
This text gives an encyclopedic account of the Jain tradition.
—————-The text is widely quoted.A widely used quote from Carl Sagan’s Cosmos, page 140 is:
“Some foolish men declare that Creator made the world. The doctrine that the world was created is ill-advised, and should be rejected. If god created the world, where was he before creation? If you say he was transcendent then, and needed no support, where is he now?”,
A number of Jain and non-Jain texts have been influenced by the Mahapurana. Mahapurana was the model for Saiva SiddhantaPeriyapuranam which gives biographies of the 63 individuals. » 
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Bio
Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris is an Author/Entrepreneur. TJ specializes in paranormal/super natural phenomenon. TJ was a professional consultant and expert witness on legal investigations and has prior military and government service in the USA 1980-1993. Professionally she uses her initials TJ. TJ has written several paranormal books including Ascension Age 2012 & Beyond, Alien UFO Story by TJ, Avatar Oracle Xeno Guide, Roswell Connection, Roswell UFO Encounters, UFOS & Extraterrestrials, and Uplifting the Soul. All books are in print available. TJ shares her life with TJ Morris & Friends and is an Ambassador of Goodwill with American Culture International Relations and ACIR. TJ Morris is her trademark ACIR her service mark.
TJ also edits books for her friends and publishes books such as mysteries and paranormal romance. Professional History in corporate international marketing, manufacturing, legal investigations, newspaper columnist, and magazine publisher. TJ lives in Kentucky USA with husband who is also an author. TJ is a speaker, spiritual consultant, producer, publisher. TJ spends much of her time assisting others as a consultant in business and with building websites. TJ’s are ACIR.us, AmericanNewsMagazine.com, TJMorris.org, ETSpirit.org,  ASCENSIONcenter.org, and many others as media online press including TimelyManorBooks.com. Tj’s books available on Amazon and Lulu under Theresa J Morris and TJ Thurmond Morris. TJ has been interested in the Alien ET UFO Community all her life with a strong research history in the metaphyics, ontology, and is founder of the ACE Folklife Historical Society and Ascension Center.org.
 TJ is also a natural born leader as a Capricorn with Aquarius rising and promotes expos, seminars, and her friends and their business interests. TJ attracts others who desire to share similar interests in social networks and is a social entrepreneur. TJ writes about what interests her including her friends and their businesses. TJ loves people, places, things, and having a near death experience learned the power of meditation and prayer for all those who believe as she does in Ascension Vertical Lifestyles for body-mind-spirit. TJ has been a Life Coach to those who request her services as a mentor. TJ is a known planner organizer since she founded Psychic Network in Hawaii 1990-1993 and has worked in seminars and expos in the USA. 

Universe,Multiverse,Metaverse,Xenoverse,Omniverse,Alphaverse,Omegaverse

Alien ET UFO Contactees Community Connection Enlightenment
“TAKEN UP SERIES by TJ” – HIGHER BEINGS & SUPREME COUNCIL IS REAL!
ASCENSION CENTER ORGANIZATION

We have an alien ET UFO Connection to each other. We are all about change in this universal order which is a part of the cosmos.

If one is about love, light, and truth then one shares how to learn to enlighten one’s own self.

We share the truth that “Alien Civilizations Exist”. We also share the “Ascension Age Enlightenment”.

Those of us who have been contacted by those of the “Higher Beings” that some call “Aliens and/or ET” all share that something wonderful is going to happen inside of us all.

We all know that we have a “Higher Purpose” and the “Emotions that Move People” are that which comes in the way we share our “Synergy Energy”.

The positive population of earth can connect to all those who feel lost and alone and share in how to make the world a better place which involves the health and prosperity for the entire human race as a species that is involved in taking care of each other and the planet.

The nature of humankind is one of nurturing and growth from the time we are born and learning to survive until the time we pass on to the next level of our journey into another somewhere as an existence.

We are all becoming more than we are on a regular basis. We all share on this planet what we call “TIME” and we use our daily 24 hours to calculate our lifetimes in years on earth. We all can relate to how many years we have been alive on earth. The age of our physical units we call a body-mind-spirit is how we calculate how much time we have on this planet before our unit-vessel can no longer sustain our essence. Our true “ALIEN ET ESSENCE SPIRIT” is what we consider that comes and goes in particles and waves that can be connected to what we call our “SOUL”.

We all have only one created soul and yet we can all share in the recovery, recycling, and reincarnation of spirit to return to the physical forms that will translate out spirit into memories.

Right now on earth in what we call “SCIENCE” we are sharing a “RESEARCH PROJECT” to prove exactly what we can take with us when we leave planet earth when we “Pass ON or DIE”.

This is a part of the new scientific research on how we can define our real core truth in what we now define as our physical compounds that came from space as science learns we are all simply made up of the elements that came from stars.

It is now understood that “WE ARE ALL ALIENS WHO WERE CREATED FROM STARS!”

For those who desire to learn more about sharing their ENERGY & ESSENCE IN SYNERGY TOGETHER with others who are ALIEN ET CONTACTEES please state tuned. Love and Light TJ

We stay in touch now via websites and those who like to read about UFO’s, ALIENS, and ET, also enjoy the TJ MORRIS.ORG and websites that are growing in nature into that of the UFODigest.com Alien ET UFO Community with TJ Morris and ACE FOLKLIFE.
We also share Ascension Center Org. and ET Spirit.Org.
We share our growth that we define on a weekly basis in our blogs and articles on the Internet Online. We share that we are our own “SOCIAL PARANORMAL COMMUNITY” and share social paranormal.com.

In the future we plan on listing our own “SOCIAL PARANORMAL DIRECTORY” along with the “ACE GUIDE DIRECTORY” of all that deals with our “WHAT MOVES PEOPLE”.

I am sharing that which will allow others to share in our core objectives while we grow into the new ASCENSION AGE to come with all the NEW SPIRITS COMING 12-21-12.

We will now be grooming all the future beings of earth to take over our Guardianship while we venture into space with other humanoids.

THE TJ MORRIS tm ACIR sm – PRIME CORE OBJECTIVES
TO INCREASE HEALTH & PROSPERITY FOR SUSTAINABILITY OF THE PLANET AND ALL HUMANOID INTELLIGENT BEING SPECIES
TJ MORRIS.ORG OBJECTIVES
Enhance the preservation of cultural heritage and scientific objects through nine Core Objectives.
1. Raises awareness;
2. Appraises and evaluates information sources and developments;
3. Assesses and makes accessible the results of research;
4. Provides an enquiry and advisory service;
5. Runs workshops and training seminars;
6. Conducts case studies and makes available the results;
7. Fosters research;
8. Promotes the sharing of experience and enables collaborative action; and,
9. Stimulates awareness among software producers of the preservation needs of the user community.
WHY? Spiritual Growth Potential of our Humanoid Sentient Intelligent Being Species.
The inside description of a context that is relative in size/structure (attributes/modes) to the known universe that we inhabit.
SHARING & CARING ABOUT SUSTAINABILITY
A Universe, also known as a Cosmos, is a particular individual space-time organization with a specified number of dimensions of space and time and definite and specific laws of physics. Other Universes (other Cosmoses) may have different numbers of dimensions of space and time and different laws of physics than our own Universe (Cosmos.
Universe:
Multiverse: The part of infinity that directly joins a given universe with all possible configurations of that universe.
Metaverse: In string theory, the part that is along with, after; over also denoting change in the multiverse that houses the branes or film that each universe is said to be attached to and hang like individual sheets in a hypermagnetic wave with rhythms of hypercosmicstrings going up and down that has a third element causing up, down, backwards, forwards, motions inside the Xenoverse.
Note: In computer science, a metaverse is a virtual reality simulation based on the physical reality of a single individual universe, but one or more levels of implementation above it. It is conceived that it will be possible in forthcoming centuries to create such simulations using massive arrays of matrioshka brains and Jupiter brains.
Xenoverse: the unknown alien elements that are beyond and part of the metaverse and multiverse structure. Compared to a patchwork quilt hanging on a line to dry in space that is multivariate inside the Omniverse.
While Omniverse is said to be the outside ring of all that is known, the xenoverse is the inside the hypermacrocosm that is unknown beyond the metaverse-the unknown sets of laws that govern how branes behave to create metaverses, the laws of which govern the creation of multiverses.
Omniverse: All possible attributes and modes are in play, multiverses are categorized by the attributes/modes active in its child universes. Some or all possible modes of existence are actualized. If we take the point of origin as our being as a point in measurement, then we can generate the following hierarchy: 1. our location in space-time, 2. this universe (cosmos), 3. the multiverse, 4. the metaverse, 5. the xenoverse, 6. the omniverse.

We share that there are seven (7) levels of what in the spiritual world we call heavens. We have seen the awakened awareness shared as the seven colors of the rainbow in the light spectrum as RED, ORANGE, YELLOW, GREEN, BLUE, INDIGO, and VIOLET.

There are ways to share these colors in NAMES of the 7 LEVELS of the COSMOS – “AS ABOVE SO BELOW”.

RED – UNIVERSE
ORANGE – MULTIVERSE
YELLOW – METAVERSE
GREEN – XENOVERSE
BLUE – OMNIVERSE
INDIGO – ALPHAVERSE
VIOLET – OMEGAVERSE

That which lies beyond the OMNIVERSE of which we on earth have always considered the “ALL I AM” has always been all that we are allowed to think about  due to the creators we call Father ALPHA and Mother OMEGA which are the Supreme Beings and their original location of “HAS ALWAYS BEEN“ which is much further advanced and more than our present humanoid mind-body-spirits can comprehend..

GAME OF LIFE as AVATARS

ASCENSION AGE
AVATAR
Infinite Power
That which the Seeker becomes as a Seer.
That which a Truth seeker becomes as a Mage
AVATAR
“You have survived uncounted centuries. Your knowledge of magic is unparalleled. The primal forces of the universe quiver at your merest beckoning. What secrets await the mage who possesses such masterful knowledge? Death, beginnings, the wisdom of the Oracles – these are your quests now. Let none stand between you and the light of Ascension!”
The Book of Life
We share that which is able to be anewed in all lifetimes. We seek truth in wisdom. The key to the spiritual being for the soul’s growth and understanding in all playing levels of the universe, multiverse, metaverse, xenoverse, and omniverse. No soul is allowed outside of the Omniverse in this level of the birth-life-death and body-mind-spirit three dimensional world of essence in ascension sentient intelligent beings who are biological. Artificial Intelligence aka A.I. may be explored in Advanced Reseearch in the Super Fascicle of Exophenotypology of the alien ET spirit.
We have prepared a “Game of Life” with the Goal as Ascension into the Avatar.
Please decide carefully whether you want to pursue to Game of Life in the Matrix with others of your humanoid kind. We train the Spiritual Intellectuals to assist the humanoids spiritual beings who choose to come to earth. Those who volunteer their time to train new spirits in the three dimensional plane of birth-life-death as body-mind-spirit will be rewarded in the higher levels of the souls progression. As above so Below. We honor the Higher Supreme Beings by choosing to desire they will be done on earth as it is in heaven. This is our pledge to allow our Superiors to work their spiritual essence through us to shift and uplift humanity while on the lower places and planes as levels and dimensions throughout the Omniverse.
The lower levels begin when an essence is created and is chosen to be sent to the Guf of souls. This is where the exophenotypology begins.
Then the spirit is formed to accommodate the new soul.
From this point of origin one is formed into the spiritual essence plasma that exists in all things in all levels of life in the Beyond and in the Omniverse as the creators choose for the newly created form.
The levels are chosen First for the Neophytes is Level 1 the lowest level is the universe,
Level 2 multiverse,
Level 3 metaverse,
Level 4 xenoverse,
Level 5 Omniverse
Chapter One: Retrospect
This chapter tells us what drives a mage to be an Arch mage. The two most important things are Seeking and Avatar.
A Seeking, in game terms, is the quest or significant enlightenment, which allows you to go up one dot in Arête. These seeking are particularly tough once past six dots of Arête. To the player character, Seeking are tests administered by the Avatar. Basically your Avatar wants to Ascend, but it is unable to do that until you are true to yourself and learn from your mistakes. You need to seek-out enlightenment. Many Seeking focus on deep engrained personality traits and tiny flaws. Your Avatar knows these tiny flaws, and makes them your biggest problem. Even if the flaw kills you. Remember your Avatar can just go on to the next soul if it does not make it this around.
The Avatar section tells us what we already know about Avatars, but it does tell us more on how they interact with the mage and his Seeking. As you know the Avatar can be described in four ways Dynamic, Pattern, Primordial and Questing. These are not new to us, but they list a fifth Essence called Infinite. The Infinite essence is attained when a mage ascends or becomes an Oracle. His Avatar finds all the other three pieces of essence, puts them together, and in turn is whole with everything or infinite. What is an Avatar anyway? This does contradict the core book, but this explanation is better. The Avatar is essentially a shard of Prime energy tied to the awareness of a human soul. When that soul passes on the Avatar separates and can pick another soul. This process continues until it ascends. Does an Avatar think? Well they explain that to in detail. It kind of messes with your head.
Chapter Two: Threshold
Threshold answers the questions; what does it take to be an Arch mage? In addition, how does a Master know when she has become an Arch mage?
There are four prerequisites to being an Arch mage; responsibility, ambition, thirsts for knowledge, and power. I like the way they set this up, because it takes you even deeper into your characters psyche and really fleshes it out more. When you get down to it and ask these questions, you will find that they are not that easy to answer. If you play the character in the universe of Mage: The Ascension these questions are vital. Without responsibility for the power you wield others will kill you before you even start. With no ambition, you are stuck on the path. No knowledge and you do not know where to begin. Lastly, without power you are physically unable to make things happen.
This chapter also covers the different Degrees of Potential. The different levels of greatness and how they generally act. Covering Disciples, Masters, and Arch mages. They give reasons why some of the Masters in the Ascension War don’t go on to study to be Arch mages and why Arch mages don’t succeed in attaining there goals.
Chapter Three: Arch mastery
So now, you have attained the tile Arch master and are trying it on for size. There are some things you might want to think about first. This chapter covers being an Arch mage with the people around you. Who can forget mortal ties? The importance of friendship and family. Once an Arch mage, it is harder and harder to go back to Earth. The paradox will kill you if you are not careful. However, without some kind of friend or family to tie yourself to humanity you will most likely go crazy. After being out of touch with people for a long time, you forget how to talk and react with them. Human contact is the most important factor in being an Arch mage. So what do you do? Do you bring them to your horizon realm? Protect them from your enemies and even from time itself? How much paradox would that take? What are your options?
Supernatural ties are a little easier to have, but can get out of control much faster than regular sleepers. Other supernatural entities are a good place to get information and friendship. This section gives the approachable super naturals from all occupations (and death). The trick in dealing with other super naturals is not to be caught up in their schemes and plots. An Arch mage as an ally who does not know she was an ally could come in handy for a vampire. Warning there is a lot of crossover stuff from other games so get over it.
Quest and Tasks is a section I thought would come in handy to mention. How does an Arch mage learn after she has surpassed her teacher? After all the books in Horizon are read? Other Arch mages do not have the time to teach. Nevertheless, Exemplars, if you can understand them, do. Shard Realms are gone over very well. How to talk to a God is in here. The subtle touch and sledgehammer methods of casting magic are quickly discussed. However, that is all Earth stuff. When dealing in the Umbra, no holes barred, things get exciting.
Resonance is the accumulated inertia of a mage’s workings. The more powerful you are the more Resonance around you. Resonance is gone through to the nth degree.
The book does not explain Paradox very well, but once you sift through the garbage surrounding the rules it is complete. It explains a lot, but adds more questions to the pool. There is a neat little spell that lets you cut out the parts of your body with Paradox and through it away.
Places of Power, shows us why it is so hard to step sideways. Expanded information on Null Zone, a place were magic does not work. There is information on realms of pure thought called Epiphanies, and personal pocket realms in the Umbra called Steadings.
Chapter Four: Ascension
The ultimate goal for most mages is of course, ascension. One big factor it seems in achieving ascension is immortality. This part of the book goes through some ways to achieve it. The coolest immortality trick that they come up with is static rebirth. This does not keep you alive forever, but it does ensure that you are as you where when you are born again. Your old body is repaired and comes back around while your spirit hangs around and then returns. Like a mummy.
There is also a big section on Exemplars, Godhood and Oracles that should be read carefully. It gives great insight on how these three very powerful beings relate, act and ascend.
So, let us say you want to ascend. First, you have to make a plan.
There are two widely accepted plans. The first is to go with the Traditions and second is to go with the Technocracy. The Traditions have a plan of individual ascension and the Technocracy have a plan of Unification of Global Awakening. It is very cool to see how different even the Traditions are from each other.
This chapter will also give you the actual character creation steps for a young Arch mage. There are also new merits and flaws. In addition, to conclude, I want to give you a taste of what is out there, so this is a list of ninth level spheres.
Correspondence No limits; you can go anywhere regardless of barriers or wards e.g. the Gauntlet, Horizon; all space is truly one space.
Entropy True Destiny; can see the Tellurium in it is every changing ways. You see all infinite possibilities and know which one will happen. You can also change a beings Destine by rising, lowering or hide it altogether.
Forces Alter Universal Forces; can manipulate the interaction of the Shenti; can change how a universal force functions, or invent an entirely new force; “This is the Force of Thon, which removes the distinctions of gender.”
Life Perfect Immortality; only through the mage’s will can her Life Pattern be affected; mage’s Pattern sustains itself regardless of perceived damage; the mage simply expands her Life Pattern to tie directly to the Tellurian.
Matter Subjective Reality; creates Matter Patterns that respond to etheric Patterns, like Mind and Spirit.
Mind One Mind; access to all minds; total intuition; Mind exists independently in the flow of the universal Mind.
Prime Expel Base Paradox/Create Universe; mage can toss Paradox off into the ether; can create a pocket Universe.
Spirit Awaken Avatar; the power to forces an Avatar to Awaken.
Time Exist Apart from Time; view the time line as a whole from beginning to end; watching the Armageddon clock; his Pattern’s entire span of existence is fused into a single “moment that encompasses the whole age
WHO IS THERA JANUS also KNOWN AS “TJ” in PHYSICS and METAPHYSICS?

I am the child of CHAOS and later METIS. I am TJ the female spirit as the Mother NATURE and Nature’s GOD. I AM WE AND WE ARE ONE. ALL FOR ONE AND ONE FOR ALL AS ONE HUMANOID SPECIES. WE ARE THE YOUNG SPIRITS HERE ON THIS PLANET TOGETHER.

We have some of our AVATAR ASCENSION MASTERS OF THE ASCENSION AGE>

<p>We are going to learn that which our ancestors knew and many of us have forgotten in the critical mass consciousness. It is up to the Avatar Ascension Masters to put back on earth that which we have forgotten in our overall ACE FOLKLIFE.</p>
<p>We are a young humanoid species. We are learning about how to share one planet with those outside of our own unit, vessel, array.</p>
<p>Presently we treat each other as self-contained unit vessels, which are biological in nature. We all tend to desire that which we cannot have and we create a passion for things that exist outside of our own units.</p>
<p>That which is considered the basics to sustain life are of course food, and water, or the reverse as 1 and 2. The third (3) thing we as humanoids require on this planet is shelter. Shelter from the harsh elements such as the solar rays from the sun and the freezing cold temperatures. Those who are our ancestors knew this and chose to seek out the areas of the world that would best sustain life with all of these conditions met. We then learned we needed number four (4) protection. We learned that in order to sustain our species we had to protect our kind in order to procreate. This is how the four basic elements of our species intelligence graduated in steps or levels. We learned about the need for fire and soon learned that we preferred our meat cooked. We were given teeth to eat with in order to survive. We learned what plants we could eat and what meat to kill to sustain our humankind. All the animals and plants in this kingdom were given along with all the fowl of the sky in order for our humankind to survive. We are certainly like pets for those who are higher in intelligence.</p>
<p>We have always believed as a critical mass consciousness in the divine intelligent design. Some would now have us believe otherwise. I am here to share that there are other more intelligent life forms and we are told to respect the hierarchy in order for us to share and sustain our species on planet earth.</p>
<p>We of the Ascension Center are of like minds and have lived before. We have lived before and have memories that allow us to know of our past lives. It is not a requirement to join our group of like minded spirits but in our world we plan on finding out tribes at this time on this planet.</p>
<p>We are going into the next age, which is about abundance with health and prosperity for all humankind. We are to base this on Tectonic Economics in both sustenance in communication. For instance, we plan to share the Internet and World Wide Web.</p>
<p>In order to share information, the information that I send our from my location based on longitude and latitude coordinates is now my physical address on this planet. We are to all have a location and it will be based on our Global Positioning System.</p>
<p>We shall also send out the Content Providers and the storage will be based on continents. In other words, what I have on this continent will be stored here and if someone in JAPAN wants to see, what I create it will be first send to a storage unit in that country and then will be kept there for a person who wanted it. This is the beginning of archive retrieval systems of the World Information Network or WIN. I began this personally through my sharing of information when I received the Ascension Center. It was about 1990 when I expected to be able to talk to my computers and wanted my office in Hawaii to speak with my office in LA, Atlanta, and New York. My mind was ahead of progress on this planet and apparently being a Time Traveler I miscalculated our knowledge with computers.</p>
<p>This is what I learned about myself. That being in two places at once and knowing what I know as an Avatar Master with memories of one location and sharing them with the other side of the METAVERSE was not yet happening in the 20th century on earth.</p>
<p>I had made myself transparent to those who worked for me on computers and in my physical life so I had to make changes. I had to leave that period and return from Hawaii to the Mainland and lay low so to speak until time once again reached me in the future of which I thought I had arrived. This is hard for most of our sentient intelligent being species to believe so they will believe this to be fiction. I have many past lives and I have known that what I shared would change this world. This is because of my heritage and my mission to return to this planet.</p>
<p>I have returned from the dead on more than one occasion and not just in this body. My daughter GIGI who goes by SYZYGY in this lifetime has also learned to return but she is still considered a young soul in this life thereby being a child in the other part of my metaverse. She is my child in this lifetime. She can assist me with shifting and uplifting human consciousness but I was told there was a divine plan and time frame.</p>
<p>Those who are to learn how to manipulate time in the future are not too learn too fast or we will have a repeat performance of the life we created in ATLANTIS.</p>
<p>We have for lack of better working words GODS and GODDESSES above. I must explain that they are the Supreme High Council and I cannot explain this any better than to say there are 12 both of the male and female array. There is a woman over this quadrant in this universe at this level.</p>
<p>It will take us a long time to understand what I am to teach as a Teacher and to some a Prophetess. We will use the ways of the past because they have worked well. It was always the MESSENGERS and not the SOLDIERS who usually received the changes to occur. Once a soldier did receive a vision and he changed the world. His name was Constantine. Some of you may have heard of him. </p>
<p>Then one Jesus came and he prepared the way for the higher dimensions to be understood and this has been left up to the word and work of the Folklife once again. The plays for power in the Game of Life have taken over from time to time and the critical mass population has allowed certain ways to happen. We are those who tend to forget quite easily that for which we came here for or our mission on this planet.</p>
<p>This is a paradise, oasis, garden of Eden to some, and to others simply a planet to explore and research. Then we have those who come to learn combat. Our world here has been separated in time to accommodate the spirits who desire to come here.</p>
<p>We have allowed a time calendar in the higher Metaverse that filters down from the Omniverse through the Xenoverse.</p>
<p>It is to assist us in keeping order among the younger spirits who come to learn about how to use their spirits and they are spiritual children. This is considered a playground for our young child universes.</p>
<p>Each unit will grow up to be a male God or a female Goddess and will rule their own planet. When they can do this, they will learn to grow up a level and learn to become part of the galactic council in the family of galaxies that exist in this universe. Some spirits can only think this high because they are young spirits.</p>
<p>Then there are the older more intelligent and longer life living in the space-time continuum and these are the ones who learn to govern universes. They are chosen. </p>
<p>From that level in the Multiverse where the universes exist, they are all taught the higher level of creating order out of chaos. Chaos was the beginning Father and then split to create Mother in the Omniverse level. They govern the areas that are new in the X zone of creation that is where the XENOVERSE is located just before we reach the entire Omniverse our outer perimeter of this Omni. The Omni are all Gods and Goddesses at the Supreme High LEVEL. We are not allowed to venture outside of the OMNIVERSE as souls without training to the other BEYOND. We are told that it has always been and we are not allowed to venture outside in our essences due to the lack of protection from being expanded into nothingness at that level. Therefore the forbidden zone in the vast wilderness of space is created as the XENOVERSE.<br /><br />
We all train above and below this XENOVERSE.</p>
<p>For now, it is up to me to offer the information as it comes to me. I am a channel of energy from the highest Supreme High Council who is considered God and Goddess. Due to the Supreme High Council that exist on this side of the Xenoverse they are located in the Metaverse.</p>
<p>In order for me to return to the outer layer of the Omniverse I must train and learn the various levels of managing all the laws of physics and metaphysics in this level. I am an Avatar Ascended Master and this is my ninth (9th) life on this planet. I have returned and I know that it does not get easier.</p>
<p>We have various levels of existence in all our levels above. There are those who are at the God and Goddess level in training. Those who Mentor the Younger Demi Gods, and there are those who act as Angels including all the levels of Guardians. Some are Messengers, and some are Warrior Angels. They serve those above in the Supreme High Council who are allowed to serve at the most high Gods side in the round table that exists in the higher planes.</p>
<p>We are to learn how to behave, observe, and explore here and in return, we learn to enjoy our senses such as our senses. We learn to enjoy the air, wind, water, and fire. We learn to enjoy the taste of food and drink. We have the freedom of space and freewill while we are here but only for a short time in the level and dimension of three (3). This is why we have a time frame on our unit vessel array of a human life span. It is up to us to learn how to manage our time and learn to take care of our individual units while here. Some of us are here to take care of the younger spirits sent here to this place. To some it is a chore to maintain the young spirits and if appears to me more like a day care center. Others maintain the animals and this becomes a zoo. We even have a quantum zoo for our smallest quarks.</p>
<p>There are four (4) quarks at this time discovered on this planet.</p>
<p>We are in the precession years and it is time that we learn to rediscover our past and our future.</p>
<p>It is time to awaken the sleepers and this is why I chose to return once again. I am the instigator or being who chose to come here to welcome or herald in the new Ascension Age. I have been working on since I was assigned the position on January 27, 1974 a chosen task. To those of you who have an awakening experience, there is always a feeling of a higher purpose. I am here to assist each of you find that higher purpose. I am a Guardian Angel on one level of the entire human race. In another light and lifetime, I am considered a Demi Goddess. There are many lifetimes and steps, levels, and dimensions.</p>
<p>It will now be up to me to ask for other spiritual intellectual souls to accept their past lives and to recognize their gifts, talents, and passions so that we can direct the future.</p>
<p>Those who will need direction will now be coming to me at the Ascension Center Organization, the ET spirit Organization, or the more down to earth workers with the TJ Morris.org. Those at the TJMorris.org are the scribes, teachers, librarians, and computer geeks so to speak.</p>
<p>Those in the ET SPIRIT Organization are already aware of their spiritual levels and have done much of their spiritual work already to know that they are extraterrestrial spirits with a connection to another place in space in this galaxy or another. I have spoken to others from Andromeda Galaxy with whom all want peace for this planet. They are always assisting others who are from other galaxies and they serve as the Ambassadors in this universe. I have had a life there and am considered a warrior and commander there although I am a communication officer here on this planet this time around. I am assigned warriors who are now considered my bodyguards of spirit as those who protected me in the ancient world called Knights Templars. I was once one of them as well so I understand their loyalty to my father in heaven for “ONE FOR ALL AND ALL FOR ONE!” This is their mission in life this time as what is now called “FREEMASONS and ROSICRUCIANS.”<br /><br />
We have those who are peaceful and yet will give their life for me and the SPIRIT of the Esprit de corps I carry of GOD and Mother Goddess who we do not speak her name out of reference and because our Father has asked us at the Demi God not to reveal to the younger spirits who come here for fear of their ignorance and blasphemy.</p>
<p>There are many now who are called to service as BAHAI from the past teachers of the ancient world religions of EUROPE. This faith in the ASCENSION CENTER was intentionally began with me in HAWAII the past home of one of my lifetimes in LEMURIA or what we called MU!</p>
<p>From there I had a life in ATLANTIS and then ONE IN THE REGION of THE VIKINGS and I WAS IN IRELAND, AND IN EGYPT. I was born again as a child who was unknown and kept secret and taken to FRANCE.</p>
<p>From their I died and returned as a Knight Templar to protect my father’s shroud for this time now in the future for when I agreed to return to explain my actions. The Shroud of TURIN is real and it will be those who believe in the Ascension Age and the Ascension Center that will change this world for the good of all with ALL FOR ONE AND ONE FOR ALL once again. We are seen as one young species on this planet and once again, we must learn about all the ancient high councils and history so that we can accept the future in our present lives while we are here.</p>
<p>God Bless AMERICA and THE WORLD! We are the World! TJ </p>
<p>PHYSICS AND METAPHYSICS IN JAINISM</p>
<p> BY DR SANJAY JAIN<br /><br />
  sanjaylambade@rediffmail.com</p>
<p>Physics seeks to know nature through the study of matter, energy and their interactions and the laws of physics are often termed as laws of nature. Thus, physics had been studied as a philosophy of nature since antiquity. Jain scriptures too provide us interesting insights into physics and metaphysics.<br /><br />
In physics, the physical attributes of matter, such as size, shape, weight and color are studied using experimental observations and their interpretation through theoretical models. For example, the observation that an object thrown up comes down is explained based on model of gravity. The research endeavors in physics are aimed at bringing to fore secrets of nature using the existing knowledge in physics, i.e., physics is used to unlock more physics.<br /><br />
There are striking similarities between what we know today through physics and what is available in Jain scriptures. For example, the natural phenomena like propagation of sound and scattering of light have almost similar explanations. The use of the word pudgal for matter by Jain seers brings forth their fundamental understanding of atomic unifying basis of all matter that compares well with what we know from physics. Pudgal is a combination of puran (fusion) and Galan (fission) and thus explains the various states of matter and the myriad variety of materials around us. Mahavira’s Anekantawad and Einstein’s theory of relativity share many ideas in common and can be looked upon as philosophical / scientific translation of each other.<br /><br />
The metaphysical philosophy of Jainism is centered around the sharp distinction between the characteristics of the’ knower’ and the ‘known’. Knower, also termed as chetan, atman, self or soul, has characteristics explicitly different than those of the known, also termed as pudgal, jad, achetan or matter.<br /><br />
The knower, according to Jainism, does not possess any of the attributes of matter. It has no shape, size, weight or color. It thus transcends the boundaries of physics and falls outside the realm of physics. It becomes a subject of metaphysics. The founding principle of Jainism is that knower cannot be known physically as it does not follow physical laws. It is beyond any physical means of detection because it is nonphysical or metaphysical. According to Jainism mind, intellect and psyche are also not the knower but can be considered its reflections.<br /><br />
The attributes of the knower are richly discussed in Jain scriptures. They are knowledge, experience, belief and potency. However, these attributes should be understood in their proper perspective. Knowledge and experience here means stoic beholding and perception of things as they are in time and space. This knowledge is somewhat different than the one we generally understand and is gathered through mind’s eye, e.g., scientific knowledge. A knower is also termed as dnyata–drishta for this reason.<br /><br />
The presence of knower in a body means the presence of perception ability. The body that houses the knower is physical and thus obeys laws of physics. Branches of physics such as biophysics or medical physics deal, respectively, with the physics of life in general and physics of human bodies in particular. The sense organs through which we take the world in, i.e., know about it, are highly evolved and sophisticated physical systems. We normally tend to attribute perception to these organs but Jainism accords perception to them because of presence of chetan, i.e., the knower in them. Just as spectacles aid seeing but do not see by themselves, organs aid perception but do not perceive by themselves.<br /><br />
Thus, when one dies body exists but cannot perceive. In a dead body, eyes cannot see, ears cannot hear, nose cannot smell, skin cannot feel and tongue cannot taste because not all these perceptions are attributes of a physical body. They are attributes of the soul that has left the body and hence organs fail to perceive. The body that houses the self-takes birth, grows and dies. During its existence, it follows all the laws of physics. However, the metaphysical soul is immortal and imperishable, i.e., it existed before birth and will continue to exist beyond death. It neither grows nor decays.<br /><br />
The knower and the known thus form two mutually exclusive worlds. The world of known is the world of physics where we have amassed huge knowledge of things that can be known. Nevertheless, in this world the knower becomes unknown as it is out of focus. But the interesting paradox is that knower cannot be in focus as it is engaged in knowing. Soul Spirituality is a journey of disengaging the knower from the world of physics and engaging the knower in knowing or realizing the self.<br /><br />
Both physicists and spiritualists pursue research in their worlds with openness, honesty and dedication and bring forth their revelations. In physics, the revelations take the form of discoveries and inventions reported in research papers and seminars. The scriptures and sermons bring forth the revelations of self – realization by spiritualists and saints. Thus all that can be discovered (i.e., passes the test of physics) is either a part of existing physics or will be a future output of research in physics but the discovery of discoverer will alone lead to the spiritual progress of a discoverer.<br /><br />
In Jainism, the attachment with pudgal is considered to be at the root of all disharmonies and binds one to the perpetual cycle of birth and death. Thus, the disciples are enjoined upon to detach from the outer world and make a journey into the inner world with a goal of self – realization by following the three-fold path discussed in the following.<br /><br />
The dawning of the reality that chetan and pudgal are explicit is called samyak dnyan (right knowledge). Firm belief in this knowledge is called samyak darshan (right belief) and conduct that will lead to complete self – realization is called samyak charitra (right conduct).<br /><br />
Though chetan dwells in all life, its powers seem to be weakened due to attachment with pudgal. It is like covering an intense source of light by a thick cover and asking where the light is. The purest soul is the one that is liberated from the bondage pudgal. The purest soul is thus referred to as a state of ‘kewal dnyan’ i.e., ‘only knowledge’. It is a state of bliss, omniscience, omnipotent and omnipresence. In this state knowledge is not ‘acquired’ through senses, i.e., acquiring knowledge is not a process. This state is somewhat like a mirror in which the knowledge of all reality in space and time reflects and which thus ends all ignorance and curiosity that are the prerequisites for ‘acquiring’ knowledge.       </p>

Alien ET TJ Spirit Guided Divine Plan share of the ASCENSION AGE
Alien ET UFO Community Awakened Conscious Awareness of the Higher Soul Essence of Self
By Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris,
I am now allowed since the date of April 22, 2012 we all know as Earth Day to reveal to others of my higher calling and election made sure for the benefit of others who have a need to know to become awakened and aware of the Ascension Age on the planet Gaia we call earth.
The reason that we had to wait until Earth Day Conscious Awareness day in 2012 is because there is a “DIVINE PLAN” and everything on earth has a time and reason for all seasons and all things.
I am doing what I can to make the hierarchy of the way that our Omniverse is structured. We are all living in levels, realms, dimensions and we all are to learn about those who we call God and Goddess as those who are various levels of beings we call extraterrestrials and celestial beings. The highest form that has evolved inside this particular macrocosm we call Supreme Beings and their job is to bring order to chaos. In other words in the beginning before there was anything known to be considered outside of the beginning there was the first we call the alpha and the second was the omega and we all each are conceived from the first as alpha and the second as omega inside the third which is the place in space we know as the third or Omni.
All of this has been called the beginning and we say “In the beginning was the word and the word was without form. What this means is that in the original conceived energy as essence there was the first awakening awareness of self as one. Then the second this awareness was conscious the second was created to become that which is awakened awareness of the first which is the mirror image with a twist of fate that created the equal and opposite of all that is like the dark and light, up and down, positive and negative, inner and outer.
When I train children as infants as my star babies I teach them about being in the beginning and they had no form and they came from their first alpha father male and first omega mother female into that which is the outside macrocosm from that which was created by both the originals who give us our soul.
The soul is the key to our essence as what is our actual conceived light body in the darkness of space we call chaos. It is the light inside the dark that allows us to know we are someone in the somewhere. We then have those who were created as the children of this chaos of both the light and dark in what we call the balance of chaos and this is called the order.
The order came in the beginning after the first Alphaverse and Omegaverse inside the chaos in order to bring about the place as space for the dark and light to become awake and aware of the beginning.
The new place in space that the light and dark are created.
We have the 0 or womb of the all and the beginning and we add the 1 and 2 which creates the 3. We say in the beginning 0 was the word and the word was without form. We say that because we had to have the original Aha of that which was not in order to have that which was the beginning. We believe in the divine creation of the soul. The soul came into being from the all or nothing of the word of awakened awareness of the original soul self which makes up all the first souls that were created form that was given to become the beginning before the word and world was and before the omniverse was.
The Omniverse is the BIG O or the ONE. From the Original O was the original Alpha and Omega. From the nothing of which we know that nothing existed came what we consider the first original soul that when it was first aware over self it had to have an outer for the inner to step outside of the original soul.
That is how we have the inner soul and the outer self which is called the essence which makes up the spirit in all things. Therefore we are all created from an alpha male, and an omega female which joins energy essence to create a third inside the womb which comes to life in the outer chaos and order of the fourth. We need to have our understanding of our creation now while we are called humanoid co-creators of other divine spirits as essence that come to this place.
We are older souls that share our spirits in a form we call our unit vessels which is in the likeness of our original prototypes as the first models. We have souls that were the original first prototype and no two of us are exactly alike for a reason that only our original soul co-creators know.
The fact that we are now awakened to the fact that the veil of the all which is that which separates the chaos from the order as the balance is what was also first created to give separation. The intelligence of the fact that we are aware of ourselves is what we are now all sharing in this the new age or what is to be called the Ascension Age of the Ancient Alien Astronauts who from the heavens came who came before as the Ancient Ones sent to this planet by those above them who are older and wiser in the hierarchy of the sea of souls.
This is a very long and drawn out story over what we call time. Time is of the Essence. Time was created by the first Essence that was like what we call the Angel Hair from the first God Alpha and the first Goddess Omega that streamed together and what we now know was created to become the energy in order to become outside of both their own conscious awakened awareness of their own divine souls.
We have been taught this story by our ancient ancestors who left clues in imprints on our planet and in our psyches which is now our critical mass consciousness. We can see some of this in the artistic creations of the work in the word. In the beginning was the word and the word was without form and therefore our balance of all that is maintained as order inside the chaos.
There are many words in the work I share that I can now use but being that I am only one of the original soul creations by our divine plan of the original Supreme Beings we know as the God and Goddess this makes me a deity. We are all alien ET in one form or another and for the sake of work in words we call me as one outside of all others that has the awakened awareness responsibility as an older soul to share the work and words for my younger soul brothers and sisters. This is to be in the place we call the space of the Ascension Age. This is about as far as I can explain what I am doing here on this planet as what some call an Alien ET Hybrid or in spiritual work and words an Avatar Ascension Master Mentor as TJ.
I am one of the first meaning oldest essences to be given a soul and I am not only an old soul but am one of the first angels or aliens that came from space or what we know has heaven in the cosmos who has all the ancient alien ancestors memories recorded or imprinted inside my own soul in this life as DNA. The fact that we were all given the right to be separate and have our own soul inside the essence of our being becomes the spirit or the traveler in time and space. This gives us our setting about our business in the astral plane so we can become awakened and aware of our own soul self to become awakened and aware of all our outside experiences when we are aware we are somewhat, somewhere, and someplace outside of our own original soul which at this time we call quantum entanglement.
Our original soul is part of the original divine plane and the older original souls have come up with energy as essence that the original one and two which made the three in the four have agreed upon to become the five. We then obtain the six, seven, eight, and nine, with the levels and dimensions before we create another as the 0 or another omniverse.
Those who are not in the original soul group are not allowed to venture outside of their own omniverse.
I will explain more later so stay tuned… TJ of that which we call “TAKEN UP” as into the clouds as in a UFO. This is going about our own Father and Mothers Divine Business!
Ascension Age of Higher Consciousness Awakened Awareness of ET Time Lords
Each humanoid on earth is a sentient intelligent being. Each being is understood to have a unit as its vessel.
This unit vessel is one’s own personal container.  We use three divisions on earth for now to describe out main 3 parts of our own selves that we can all relate too that we all share as a common ground conscious awareness.
We all use on this planet as a humanoid what we refer to as the body-mind-spirit. We use the main three divisions and still know we have the emotional ego/id portion of our energy that we can learn to control as that part of us that responds to stimulation from the outside forces usually that we observe and respond to our outside environment including the weather.
The reason we are now sharing that all humanoids as sentient intelligent beings are now to join others of us who are the Avatar Ascension Masters of the Omniverse as the messengers of the Supreme Beings of the Alphaverse and Omegaverse is that it is now time to become awakened and aware of the higher soul self we call the glorious golden twin flame essence that is actually one’s own original soul as this part of each creations beginning.
We who are chosen before we come to earth with a choice in our own freewill of created soul essence in life are considered the older souls. We are taught about the hierarchy in heaven so to speak or in the co-created cosmos. We learn about those who from the heavens came before all those who are now present on earth and we regard them as the first and older humanoids that were created prior to all of us on earth or at least most all the young spirit souls on earth.
There are those who are the oldest and wisest who were in the beginning and we who are allowed to come and go from this level, plane, realm that were some of the first souls created are given various levels in what presently we know of as Time.
Alien ET TJ Spirit Guided Plan “New Atlantis” Project
Submitted by Theresa J. Thur… On Sun, 03/20/2011 – 09:12
By Theresa J. Thurmond Morris
                         All of us are now a part of the new beginning of Atlantis. We are the soul heirs to the future in space. We are also the soul airs, if one will allow a simple and fun play on words. We are going to now learn to share the spirit of the times, also known as zeitgeist.
I am going to change the German word from zeitgeist to ET spirit.
 Those who desire to assist in the future that want to share in creating the future Atlantis with others in synergy and esprit de corps may join me in a new organization called ET Spirit.Org. (etspirit.org).
 We of course still will use the Ascension Center Organization, which is about the shift and uplift of all our spiritual awareness to that of the spirit. These spiritual beings may or may not choose to assist us create the physical location of Atlantis on earth but this is going to be the physical Ascension Center called the New Atlantis project as well.
 Now, how this plays out is any bodies guess while I am still alive in physical body-mind-spirit on earth. Everyone has to remember that I am now considered 59 earth years. I was born on December 26, 1951. Yes, I am a day late and a dollar short baby born the day after Christmas. Ask anyone born on that date and they will explain the life and term we all share with that birth date for presents and gifts while on earth being on the normal American family life.
 I was given this vision when I was a business entrepreneur in Hawaii in 1990. I had the vision energy but it did not materialize into something I could fathom with my own mind until I died on January 27, 1974. I was allowed to come back to earth as was my baby daughter Ginger Theresa Fay Parrish Bowers who also died. I mean both our hearts had stopped and to all that knew of us both we were clinically dead. I have to participate in watching them cut me open from overhead as spirit. That was different to say the least. That was my first out of body experience or OBE. I had seen ET spirits before or whom I called angels as a child of 7 years when I was in the second grade in about April of 1957 while I attended Mitchell Elementary School in West Monroe, Louisiana. I caught Hepatitis and all the blood in my body was taken out by machine and purified somehow and that helped bring me back somehow. The Spirits I could see the Catholics were very interested in. That is a story I have told but not in detail.
 Just please know that I have plenty of spirit both in and out of body and I also can communicate with other ET spirits whether in a physical form or out. I can also see ET UFOS when I am needed. That too is another story. Apparently, I have a lot of explaining to do about my past life and my other past lives that have brought me to this moment in this life and in this time. I am also called a time traveler which most of those who truly take me seriously in the quantum physics scientific world prefer me to use with the work and worlds I frequent versus being an alien TJ ET spirit.
That too is a long story dealing with the past business corporation structures we have created on earth in the last twentieth century. I have to be able to work with the past and the present in order to create the future. It is what President Barrack Obama of the United States called reinventing one’s self and business ventures. I am sure President Obama knows of me since I was so adamant about changing the views of congress on the NASA views of going into space.
 Most of the friends of TJ Morris know that I am a mover and shaker social and spiritual entrepreneur. I have a guided spirit that shares a real passion for making this world a better place for all to encounter whole life energy of all body-mind-spirit. This means that we are going to begin sharing how we can all share in our future to make the world a better place for all future spirits.
 There are various parts of the plan for Atlantis. The first priority if location, location, location. This is still an important sale point in all parts of the omniverse. May I offer that a major part of what we are building is for all extraterrestrials that are here and will be coming here after December 21, 2012? 11:11. my creators allowed me four (4) beautiful daughters that can assist us when the time comes but for now they are all middle aged raising their children in school in Florida. Therefore, while they are doing their part to make sure they can survive while taking care of my grandchildren, I as woman in business will assist all those who desire to create a franchise business that will be like no other on earth.
 How will I do this one might ask? I plan to use my ET Spirit Guides. Belief is a wonderful power on this planet. It was once taught that if one has the belief as small as a mustard seed that one can move mountains. Those of us who are of a spiritual nature are going to test this saying out in our time. That is one of the ancient culture sayings. We are going to say those with ET spirit can make the world a better place by creating the New Atlantis.
 This past global catastrophe of 3-11-11 of a major earthquake and tsunami has opened my mind and awareness to more of what the Ascension Center is all about and it is amazing. I always knew something wonderful was going to happen in the future but it had not materialized.
 Now, for those who are non-believers, they will be able to participate in the future with those of the ET spirit on earth. For those who desire to make the future a pro-disclosure atmosphere of the governments of the world, we are going to learn about tectonic economics, which is the reason we will use the spiritual energy named “New Atlantis”. That is the name of this project.
 I realize that there are many people who have been my readers and fans in the past five years. Some are only made aware of me through UFO Digest and I will always be thankful to my soul group that includes Dirk Vander Ploeg, Robert Morningstar and all my colleagues as fellow writers. I hope that all my ET/UFO Community friends will join me in my new quest to rebuild and restructure Atlantis. This time it is my hope and desire to bring the Etspirit from within to the without for the entire world to behold.
 Many of the past has tried and that is where the Egyptian pyramids were introduced. They were also used to create the mysticism of humanities imagination, which has worked in this world. In addition, they were first used in the ancient of days to locate the human populations from space. That is another story of the ancient aliens and we are about the future ET spirit. I have had so many spiritual experiences and ET UFO experiences that I lost count. I know that for many who have only seen one UFO that is must have been a wonderful experience. However, for me, I know that they are real and alien civilizations exist and this is just a part of life on earth. I do not have the first epiphany experience that others have anymore. I had mine and had to learn how to live a life as normal while my normal was sharing ET, Spirit Guides, and UFOS. Therefore, my life is one that could and should probably be shared with the global population but they will hear it when it is time. Right now, I want to concentrate on bringing others together that desire to be included in the Ascension Center Organization, the ET Spirit Organization, and the TJ Morris Organization.
 Now, there will be many people on earth and especially in the corporate Fortune 500 world that will ask why do I need three organizations. The answer is that each serves a purpose and the triad is one of the most powerful forms one can use on earth. This particular triad will be one that starts with an E, one that starts with an A, and one that starts with a T. Put the three letters together and that spells the word “EAT”.
 What does the humanoid species like to do best and do so to survive while on earth? We eat and this is a way to remember all three organizations, Etspirit.org, Ascensioncenter.Org, and TJ Morris.org.
 We will find a way to recognize all members. For now, we share social networking and have to create our websites and Facebook pages. We will be planning our marketing and business plans along with our future Ascension Center ET Spirit Space Port.
 The project for all three involved at this point is called the “NEW ATLANTIS”. This will also include the quest for all past history that is of the Ancient Mystery Schools and all the antique relics.
 We will share in our ACE Folklife with the common folk of the middle class, which deals in art, culture, education, science, and technology. This is the worker bees so to speak on this planet. We all are volunteers and we include our hobbies and most are collectors of some type. IF not of ET UFO information, then of ancient artifacts as in archaeology and some can only afford fine replicas of things. I like the sphinx and I have only two.  Now, I plan to build one outside the New Atlantis.
 We will create a way to share that which will be promoting a spaceport in the United States of America and then we will franchise out to all other countries that desire to use our proven model by my ET spirit Guides. At this point, I am the creator founder of this project due to every corporation will need a founder as the point of origin or who first received the idea which will spread around the world. That is how we have learned to share our energy on earth. I have done this before in the past and many people have just been waiting for me to finally get the last piece of the puzzle so that they could participate with me as staff in the Ascension Center, the New Atlantis, the ET Spirit Organization, or the TJ Morris Organization. I hope to see many jobs created and we will support drop shipping for obvious tectonic economic reasons.
 The one main goal is to create my ET spirit guided energy into something that people all over the world can recognize as products, services, and will be able to desire a passion for working for this franchise in the future. We of course will use the present global community idea of utilizing corporations with angel backers who will then become stockholders preferred and common.
 It is my hope to get all of this far enough along on earth before I die. I will leave my four daughters in charge of four separate corporations as the founder’s heirs. One corporation will be strictly for the family and it will depend on one girl to manage my estate when I die. That daughter will have to manage the money in the trust that I plan on making for our own family to exist. Right now, I only require a tithing or 10% for my consulting fee of what I begin as thought.
 When I put this thought into service I require a 15% Management fee. Right now, as far as my books are priced I am given the cost of material and labor but we have to add in shipping cost which is now part of our formula being that we are a global community. So FedEx, UPS, and US Mail are a part of our extended global reach family. Keep in mind if you join our organizations that whatever products and services we create, we will sooner or later set up franchise businesses around the world with our logo and service marks. These in time will develop goodwill. I have been working as long as I can remember. My first paying job on my U.S. social security card was at Dairy Queen in Houston, Texas in 1966. I have been working since 1966 in the United States. That gives me 45 years of experience in the Unites States as either an employee or entrepreneur. I have experience as a President/CEO of both profit and nonprofit corporations. We can do this with positive spirit of encouragement. I will do what I can to maintain my body-mind-spirit while we create this “New Atlantis” project.
 I create products, I require the cost of labor and material plus we double the sale price for those who desire to franchise the model we use in business. Then for those who manage all businesses, we require a 40% above the maintained business plan cash flow for unexpected catastrophes to maintain cash flow on earth. My grandchildren may also partake in management and administration if they so desire. It will require interest and energy on their own part in order to succeed. No one will be required to become a part of this spiritual venture if they do not feel guided by their own ET spirit. TJ

Sarah was awakened from sleep only to be visited by the Supreme Being who had guided her to those who were called the Supreme High Council of Alpha and Omega.
Sarah was her spiritual name and one which was a past life first of one of many names which she had been blessed with as one of the first spirits to be sent to earth.
Now Sarah was facing her future with the understanding that she had agreed to be chosen for this mission to earth. Sarah was anticipating the ritual which she had learned about in her life on earth.
The physical body was taken to be bathed, oiled, perfumed and draped in her native white gown of those who are of the Golden Deity Custom dress and Robe with hood.
The tribes of the ancients were called the Ancestors and Sarah had agreed to return to earth once again to share in the truth of what on earth was called the history of the Christ Consciousness which was as close to her father in heavens way that was designed in order to bring harmony and balance in a world of disorder and chaos when left to the mere humanoids.
Sarah had been taught about prior lives on earth when humanoid sentient intelligent beings reached a point in their evolution where they would breed various other world creations. Also, they had learned through evolutionary technology to create robotic humanoids without souls. This was repeated throughout time on earth and the past of humanoids had a history from the time of Lemuria and Atlantis. This time would be different. The memories would be brought back to many of the young new born spirits who were the children of the ancient souls from the first soul group that was the sons and daughters of the original deities.
This was the news of which Sarah was to be given in the telepathic way of vibrations from one of the female deities who worked directly for the God Alpha and Goddess Omega of the original souls who have always been.
We who are the Ascension Authority of the Alpha and Omega have chosen you as our messenger.
We welcome you and share that this time on earth you will be allowed to retain some memories of your past lives on earth. Some will be of lives in other galaxies in the universe. We share that you will now have memories of the levels of the universe, multiverse, metaverse, xenoverse, and omniverse.
Go and teach the ways of the Star Trekkers and the Star Warriors that will become known on earth.
This will become your letter of authorization that will become known on earth. We shall send telepathic messages to you in the future for now your spirit cannot retain all that we desire to share.
Go now and make your calling and election made sure as our chosen Messenger as the Female chosen of the Alpha Males and the Omega Females. We have shared your ancestors for eons and know that your soul has been blessed with the agreement of all that is for the greater good of the humanoid kind.
Go now and share in the way of the “Keeper of the Flame” that which will become the Book of Theresa which was inspired by God and God Mother and teach the Ascension.
This is our desire as the Divine Plan for the Divine Plane we now share as one of our terra form creations we designed as Gaia which is a working planet for many of our children who share in the astral travel as spiritual Time Lords. We grant the Lords and Ladies of spirit that is of the essence which is allowed to bring back all the memories that are imprinted on their screens of the mind inside the unit containers of the individuals who are to become the future Co-creators of future Omniverses. They will now learn to expand the known out of the unknown of which we as the original creators who have always been have bequeathed to all those new born souls out of the sea of souls after our own kind. Go now and share this with your own self in mind, body, and spirit to be shared with those whom you shall call friends.
We grant the future with TJ Morris & Friends on earth as those who shall believe in the world and work of the Ascension Center.
NEWS &EVENTS
PRESS RELEASE PUBLIC
Thank you
Access to Information Central Clearing House
ASCENSION CENTER INFORMATION RESOURCE as ACIR of the ASCENSION AGE.
Ascension ET Authority has given consent via agreement of all Gaia Earth confirmations for the
Ascension Center Organization and all Ascension Center Enlightenment
By order of the Supreme Beings of the Alpha and Omega of the Omniverse this notice is hereby released for all public relations and business to be transacted by their ambassador of goodwill for the health and prosperity for all on planet earth in the Milky Way Galaxy and in relation to all information supplied by the Andromeda Galaxy of Federations in the Alliance of 2012.
This order is hereby bequeathed to the official Founder and Ambassador of Goodwill for the entire universe for higher consciousness and of higher spiritual attainment.
This information will be shared among those who are our chosen Messengers. Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris will be about our business and will here by become our Spiritual Council on earth.
As of this date April 23, 2012 the day after Earth Day on earth, we hereby appoint our Ascension Center Representative to conduct business as Ascension Center ET Authority, Ascension Center, Ascension Center Organization, The Ascension Center Law, The Ascension Center Business, and any and all other information to be continued on earth by and way of our agreement with said messenger born on earth as Theresa Janette Thurmond and now known as Theresa J Morris, and as the Spiritual Ascension Master TJ.
The Ascension Center is hereby known that TJ is responsible for conducting all our business on earth as our representative.
TJ married the church of the Ascension Center on April 22, 2012 and has hereby given up all her earthly desires to marry another and her days of childbirth are now behind her and she can devote all her time on earth from this day forward to creating heaven on earth of the people, for the people and by the people so help her God.
This is a matriarch maternal affair of which the Omega Females shall be recognized as the feminine rule in this time and dispensation along with the prior 200o year reign of the Alpha Males on earth.
December 21, 2012 marks the new date and time and dispensation on the calendar as the ASCENSION CENTER chosen day as ANCESTOR DAY in the future on all world calendars.
This is hereby given to all in the web and in the Akashic Field. We make not in the Akasha Field and With TJ Morris Publishing as our chosen spirit, angel, alien, extraterrestrial, avatar, and ascension master.
AKASHA CENTER NOTIFICATION is HEREBY SHARED with the ASCENSION CENTER and all that is to be governed under the name f or business on earth as ASCENSION CENTER ORGANIZATION. The future of the Ascension Center Network will be with all other communications and community organizations.
Access to Information Central Clearing House
Source: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Access to Information Central Clearing House was established by the UK Government in January 2005. The Central Clearing House’s was set up to ensure consistent application of the Data Protection Act 1998, the Freedom of Information Act 2000, and the Environmental Information Regulations (EIRs) across Central Government.
 The Central Clearing House provides expert advice for cases referred to the Information Commissioner or Information Tribunal.
Procedures exist to ensure that all requests which activate one of a number of ‘triggers’ are referred to the Clearing House.
Critics have blamed the Central Clearing House for the rising number of appeals to the Information Commissioner and for ‘being bent on blocking as many requests for information as it can’.
Triggers for referring requests to Central Clearing House:
The Government has published a list of triggers which will result in request being referred to the Central Clearing House these triggers fall under five main headings:
Prime Ministerial and Ministerial Issues
Royal Household and Honors
Procurement and Efficiency
Cross-Whitehall Issues
Ministerial Veto Certificates and Security
References
^ List of ‘triggers’ for referral to the DCA Clearing House, Department of Constitutional Affairs
Thank you to Coke for allowing us to participate with the Pass Christian Carnival Festival and allowing Our Founder’s Daughter Stephanie Parrish and Dewayne Saucier to give boat rides on the Dawn’s Angel Charters for this weekend of EARTH DAY!
We appreciate the GOLDEN GULF COAST of our USA!
Thank you BP for cleaning up and providing jobs after the unfortunate oil spill off our coast. We hope that the photo of the founder’s daughter on the beach with Dewayne and Daughter Kali Mariah Smith is a memorable one being it was used 2011-2012 and was complimentary and permission was given to the photographer.
Special Visit
We are fortunate to have our town’s mayor come and speak with us in our new conference hall. He will be discussing the power of community based organizations in helping society. The mayor will also be fielding questions and breaking bread with those in attendance. We are excited to have such an honored guest!
Special Earth’s Atmosphere on Earth’ Day, April 22, 2012
Nitrogen (N2) 78.084%
Oxygen (O2) 20.946%
Argon (Ar) 0.934%
Carbon dioxide (CO2) 0.0383 %
Neon (Ne) 0.001818 %
Helium (He) 0.000524 %
Methane (CH4) 0.0001745 %
Krypton (Kr) 0.000114%
Hydrogen (H2) 0.000055 %
There is also a varying amount of water vapor, depending on the altitude and conditions where it is measured
A link is provided to the Wikipedia article on the earth’s atmosphere.
Monday Movie Night
Our next Community Monday Movie Night will take place on June 11th at the Anyscreen theater complex in Anytown. We have reserved our own theater for a showing of “Gone with the Wind”. The movie will begin promptly at 7:00PM. Proceeds benefit the Kids Camp Scholarship Fund. Get your tickets now!
SPECIAL CONTENT WRITING BY OUR ACE – Authors, Copywriters, Editors Notes on Automatic Writing and Brainstorming for the future to be share through the Ascension Center Organization, ACE Metaphysical Academy. ACE Institute, and for all ACE Folklife in the preservation of our ancestors art, culture, education, science, technology, folklife, and history.
Please take note that our story teller of the future research and shares of past and future lives shall include our chosen messenger TJ Morris of the story TAKEN UP which will become the Book of Theresa for all time and eternity and the truth will be known as TJ the messenger who shares the Christ consciousness of the unexplainable mysteries of life in the known and the unknown of the Xenoverse inside the Omniverse.
We have confirmed to our messenger of choice as Theresa Janette Thurmond that which we shall continue to explain in the divine plan as the quantum entanglement place and plane of the theory of everything directly related to the entire Omniverse of all creations of Alpha and Omega.
Alphaverse and Omegaverse are reserved for those who have always been and for their children who were listed on earth as those who from the heavens came. The heavens are now recognized as the cosmos and we have a universal translator which will continue to serve on earth in the web for the Internet communication of our own design as inspiration through humanoid sentient intelligent beings.
“TAKEN UP” Extragalactic ET Telepathy Transmissions Nitrogen (N2) 78.084%
Oxygen (O2) 20.946%
Argon (Ar) 0.934%
Carbon dioxide (CO2) 0.0383 %
Neon (Ne) 0.001818 %
Helium (He) 0.000524 %
Methane (CH4) 0.0001745 %
Krypton (Kr) 0.000114%
Hydrogen (H2) 0.000055 %
There is also a varying amount of water vapor, depending on the altitude and conditions where it is measured
A link is provided to the Wikipedia article on the earth’s atmosphere.
Automatic Writing is a form of inspiration creation. I have been one to use this form of understanding my higher self and guidance for as long as I can remember in this lifetime and others. There are other forms of communication with our Ascension Age Extraterrestrial Guides. This form is the closest to sharing Extraterrestrial (ET) Prophecy as I have seen other than seeing these Extraterrestrials appear in human form.
There are two types of physical manifestation that I have observed. There are those who consider themselves messengers which in the ancient of times would have been considered angels. Then there are those who can come and go at will based on their holographic representation of their other selves.  Times are changing and so are we. If one desires to be visited by those above to serve as your guides this can happen. It has to some. We who have lived past lives and remember them are sharing the awakening experiences in what we call the Ascension Age of Love and Light as enlightenment.
With my lesson of having died and returned in this lifetime, I have been one who has chosen to return as one who receives messages not only  in person as in what we call contact of the UFO Contactee Experiencer type. But also, as one who received messages through or by way of automatic writing as a form of Alien ET Extraterrestrial writing or vibrations. It is not the same as brain storming because one has to allow their conscious mind to listen to your will to let go and Let God/Goddess as is our super conscious above. There are various types of writing and this is but one way. It is spiritual inspiration when one discovers another believes in you and trusts you with a friendship of love and light. Love of all and this includes faith, hope, charity of what is, what was, and what will be forever and ever Amen. We shall share the power of discernment. Love for all humankind and all living things is real expression of the essence of our own free will and energy as it should be. Sharing what can be in our future requires visionaries. We can all be visionaries including the “I AM” in “ALL”.
Alien Civilizations Exist! (ACE) – “TAKEN UP” Series by TJ
Created for Peter Dirk Vander Ploeg and Robert C. Morningstar
The following are excerpts and formation of my own personal perceptions as received transmissions which in the world in which I share with other alien extraterrestrials as Ascension Ascended Masters who have returned as reincarnates on this planet use to share and to educate and our aim is to provide guidance.
We have been those who are aware of the prior teachings of others who we follow in their paths and footsteps based on prior extraterrestrial invocation by way of spirit.
This is a time called Ascension Age which is leading us into a more spiritual age of enlightenment. This is a time some call the “Golden Age of Enlightenment”.
It is now time on earth that I, Theresa Janette (Tara Janus or Tara of Sothis) also known as Green Tara share my inner guidance as that of my Guides from another realm of existence that we presently call Andromeda. This is what is shared as the Ascension Age 9-1-11 and dates to come 11-11-11 and 12-21-12 which are benchmarks in time and space for all.
The Andromeda Galaxy is the closest one to our own called the Milky Way Galaxy.
We are sharing our time on earth with those who from the heaven’s came. There will be ancient myths, legends, stories, sacred scriptures, and ancient hieroglyphs that are used to tell our story.
We also have many who are written about throughout time for those who could read but most has been lost due to those who could not read and write. We now encourage all in this spiritual realm and in the physical realm to be guided by their essence of spirit as energy to serve each individual on this planet.
We share that it is time for all to succumb to the level of enlightenment that some now regard as Ascension Center Enlightenment or Ascension Center Education from above.
No one person has the total enlightenment perfection since that of one who we called Jesus or Jehovah who walked the earth with common humankind. There have been others who came before such as Solomon and those who we know as Enoch, Saul, and many others.
It is now time to share the stories of those who find their way through the spirit realm into our extraterrestrial realm that some call the Akashic Field and Theory of Everything.
We will be sharing with many who desire our guidance and we have placed the words of Ascension and Center along with the ancient Sanskrit words of Ayu for Life and Veda for wisdom.
We now share that by way of the ancient old languages prior to Sanskrit there was the language of both the Atlantians and Lemurians.
 Those who follow various thought forms form space as other ancient planetarians may desire to group themselves with various new stellar soul mates in the “Thought Form Horizon”.
It is time that we announce the imperfections in the thought forms we call the body-mind-spirit of the imaginations that are kept with those who desire to reincarnate and to prefect their individual sparks that we call essence as spirit while traveling through the Omniverse.
 Each being on earth stands alone as a prefect of their own essence which can be seen as energy. Each creation has a body-mind-spirit in physical form that we presently call LIFE. It is up to each individual to perfect their own will and timeline while visiting the working planet called earth.
The word earth has an etymology that includes eugenics of the concerns for improving the human species.
We shall begin sharing more of what the creation of this species has been included on the working planet in order to assist in terra forming other planets.
We who exist in space have a “Code of Ethereal Ethics”. We expect our chosen communicators who are also addresses as Galaxy Citizens in this universe to shape and form as in ontology the work and words in English to share in the determination of the future of  “All Souls” as the “I AM” in us ALL!
We are now presenting to all and others to learn to write and to visualize as automatic writers while we use the thought forms of the Internet and the Word Wide Web which we have been instrumental in creating through our guidance of others.
We shall now offer others our Ancient Aliens which are working words describing the humanoids of earth ancestors such as  “Keeper of the Flame”  Mystic Oracle, Sage,  Seer, Shaman and we ask that those who desire to unit as in the word called church the genealogy of all those who desire to share the past in the present and future.
We offer the world a Generalissimo of the General Assembly for the planet called Gaia also called Earth the rare form of experience in that which is the Hierarchy of all that have come before to the planet earth.
We realize that there are also generalizations for each generation on earth. This has been predesigned or in the working world of some that is celestial guided preordained.
We welcome all world religions who have been instrumental in shaping the future world with our predetermined arrival as extraterrestrials back into the physical realm of existence.
We use automatic writing through a chosen vessel who has volunteered their services for the future to be predicted based on our prior guidance.
We share in the nature of the creation of the future with all those who are open to our telepathic communication which we share with those of the spiritual nature.
We have come to define those who are most receptive to our internal reception by way of hearing those who are of the spiritual realm and continue to send thought forms out into the universe via their own thought waves that some call prayer and meditation. Some share their individual wills through sharing in churches or through forms in groups.
We provide guidance as the spiritual guides of those who from the heavens came by way of chosen instruments and vessels who are individual units who are most receptive and keep their vessels clean.
We share the future for the planet earth based on those above who are considered the Supreme Beings and who are at the highest level of existence above the Omniverse.
We are those who come formed in the various thought forms and can materialize at any time when needed. We are simply here to guide and direct those who are willing to share in shaping the future of the “ALL SOULS” who are coming to the working world to prepare the way for all future eternal spirits of the universe.
We share in the process of enlightenment while we prepare the way for the “ALL” of the “I AM” in a way that resembles what is now called the various levels of the “ALL” in the “HAS ALWAYS BEEN” of the Omniverse.
Presently we share the planes and dimensions of the five  (5) which is called the five levels and favored dimensions as working words shared on earth as the below:
Universe,
Multiverse,
Metaverse
Xenoverse
Omniverse.
Please begin to inform others of these working words of the worlds that exist based on the eternal extraterrestrials that have always been since the inception and creation of thorough thought forms we call energy of the essence that sends the spirit to the various creations as body-mind-spirits having the birth-life-death experiences for the future of all that shall come after!
We are always aware of those which come to be awakened to the awareness of all that exist in various levels of the Omniverse. We thank all those who have come to the planet each as Gaia and who have lived before in Atlantis and Lemuria and in times when the planet was undergoing change for those who come in the future. All are to arrive at better times without the future consequences to be learned that are already understood. All shall learn with meaning and sharing internally when reappearing in thought form.
We also advise others to be aware of those who are not sent of our own accord and predestined observation as those we claim as our own eternal creations of the Omniverse Creators who have always been and are the oldest eternals that embody the original thought form. Some are not of the original creation with souls as we celebrate “All Souls Day” and “Ascension Day” which is a time to celebrate the life of all.
Those who are at the level of understanding the wisdom of this life are welcome to enter the new portal called the Ascension Age on 11-11-11 which is a benchmark of numbers predestined and marked in time for the spiritual embodiment of “ALL SOULS DAY” for those who shall enter the Higher Realms of Understanding called Enlightenment of the Essence of the Soul. The spirit is only one level of life as existence that returns to the soul of the original creation to share in the eternal expression of creating life elsewhere in the Omniverse. This was the message in love and light of those who were masters who came before. Some believe in only one master. Some believe in the divine creation of all three.
The “Keeper of the Flame” is how we have accessed this level of thought forms while offering our guidance in the ways of the past which are not brought back to live and are LIVE through the agent or body-mind-spirit of the Ascension Ascended Master and the Divine Instrument of Inspiration which we ourselves have created who some call an Extraterrestrial or ET. We calmly accurately announce that of the return of TJ on earth in order to prefect and perform the communication for our level of existence which comes and goes without and within any and all things.
AYURVEDA
Ayu means the Life Veda means wisdom or science of If you put it together, it means the science of life. If something is “Ayurvedic”, what does that mean? “‘Ayurveda’ is a holistic system of medicine from India that uses a constitutional model. Its aim is to provide guidance…
Ayurveda (Sanskrit: – Ayurveda … sweating and prescribe steam-based treatments as a means … much faster modern manufacturing processes, and does …en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ayurveda  Best Answer: Ayurveda – this actually is an ancient system of healing, which uses a variety of herbs to cure ailments and increase immunity
———————————————————————————————————
Excerpt from Source UFO Digest.;
Submitted by George Rixon on Thu, 08/25/2011 – 16:18
The late DR Alexis Carrael member of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research was not only a believer in the phenomenon but declared that there was definite scientific proof that man could project his thought even at great distances into other minds.
   From the book: ‘The University of Spiritualism’ by Harry Boddington, we can read, how this thought projection work he says: “The aura is projected long distances by simple effort of will and thus makes possible the phenomenon of the ‘double’ or appearance of the spirit body separated from its physical duplicate. These are sometimes called thought-forms”.
   “As they are an automatic thought-expression of the individual, who may be completely unconscious that he has thus projected his own simulacrum on to the brain of someone else, of whom he happened to be thinking of at the moment. If the conditions are suitable, it becomes objective in so real a fashion that it appears to be exterior tithe seer”.
ALIEN Telepathy.
TJ Morris tm ACIR sm
“Blessed are those who share the spirit of many friends in this working world.” TJ
 A friend loves at all times.  Proverbs 17:17
Love and Light Eternal – Your wealth is where your friends are.  Plautus
I desire so to conduct the affairs of this administration that is at the end – I have lost every other friend on earth, I shall at least have one friend left, and that friend shall be inside of me. – Abraham Lincoln
STAY TUNED…

UFO Digest Articles by TJ Thurmond Morris

I ADDED AN ARTICLE I HAVE WRITTEN ON UFO DIGEST!
It should appear as a link here! TJ

I would like to share my thoughts and reasons about it with you but it would take too long.  May I ask you if when you write you are channeling someone? Sometimes I feel as if you are.  What do believe about those who claim to be psychic and tell your “future”? Is this for real, is it wrong (I don’t have that gift myself)? I just wonder. Those are the two things I wanted to ask you.  I would also like to tell you that I had what I believe to be an Out of Body experience once, several years ago. I was lying in bed resting one summer afternoon and just before I thought I was going to sleep all at once I found myself sitting in the middle of a field of some sort. I remember it was a gorgeous day and the sky was as clear blue as it could possibly be. I was looking at the sky when I saw what looked like a very tiny cloud far, far away. It began to take the shape of a small ball and began to move towards me. As it moved towards me faster the ball turned into what looked like a beautiful irradecent pearl and then as it moved even faster out of the pearl was Jesus Christ in a brilliantly white gown with His arms out-streached. I remember my heart began to pound like never before, or since, and then I jumped up off of my bed with sweat beading up all over me. That was that, I haven’t had such an experience since. What do you think?
Well if you never get to read this or respond I will understand.
God Bless you TJ,
Sincerely, 

ASCENSION CENTER ENLIGHTENMENT BLOG TIMES

SPACE RACE FOR GLOBAL COMMUNICATION
By Theresa J. Thurmond Morris

This is the “Great Awakening!”

 “Consider the Xenoverse – Regarding One World Government I bring you news that Andromeda Galaxy and the Milky Way Galaxy will become one Galaxy in the future.

Prior to this time, we have dimensions and places to discover in this world and others. We can make the future possible with knowing more of the future in space.”

We have news that there will be global infrastructure of space involvement.

We must first overcome our fear of global community enlightenment among those who are not familiar with interfaith.

Infrastructure is the basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities. 2.The basic, underlying framework or features of a system or organization. 2. the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area.

FUTURE WORLD

This world must learn to accept all that are members on this planet. We are all one species. We have others who are also of humanoid species in space. There are many more in our space time continuum to learn about. We will become ambassadors of goodwill toward humanity on earth and on other planets willingly.
– Baha’I Faithers – Interfaith Future of Global Community You have brought up a wonderful topic. I am glad you did! Thank you. Our future is in space. The control of the air space above earth is now more important than the control on land.

This is the final chapter of our future. We must learn to control our communication and become diplomats with esprit de corps in space. This news is not news to some but will come as a Thief in the Night to many who will not understand the rule of earth from Space. We are here to assist in the future of abundance and health for all. It is time to share the infinity squared and knowledge unknown in the Xenoverse to combine our futures.

1 6 3 3 =13 the power.

This is the “Great Awakening!”

This is the final chapter of our future. We must learn to control our communication and become diplomats with esprit de corps in space. I know how you feel regarding whether one world government would be good or bad so count me in as a researcher for what is best or for the greater good.

My main life goal as a Social Entrepreneur Ambassador of Goodwill deals with Intergovernmental Relations and Global Culture. We are all about to feel the change and the “MAIN SQUEEZE – 2011” is upon us. We are all feeling how small the world has become with the Internet.

Those who control Cyberspace control the world from SPACE! The future “EARTH GLOBAL GOVERNMENT” will be an “ALLIANCE IN SPACE!” Think about it. The security of our world deals with all the “SPACE SATELLITES” that can shoot and defend countries from space. We do not need only the “MILITARY INTEL” from the “MAIN FRONT”. The world of wars of the past military gains was from the FRONT on earth in the past.

This is no longer the case. We are now in control from the space levels! This means that we are now able to not only use “SPY SATELLITES” and “Global Positioning Systems (GPS) but we can control “NUCLEAR LASER BOMBS” from space. This is why the scramble for the “SUPER POWERS” between those of the old regime “USA-UK” vs. “ASIAN”/ There are those such as IRAN, IRAQ, North Korea that have battled for positions on earth and now in space. CHINA has the next GLOBAL POSITIONING SATELLITES in space and they are jockeying for position now that they have their products and services in place.

It is not like AMERICA or the NORTH AMERICAN CONTINENT did not see this coming! We are now under the control of the five (5) Continent World. We are now looked at from space as all those who are controlled from above.

This is part of something much bigger than knowing the Internet from CYBERSPACE. We have come too far for all those of the old “MUSLIM ALLAH” control one earth. We must let the common folk once known as the peasants, serfs, poor, lower classes who have populated the world to know they have purpose while here. We cannot control them with only the “BEER” for “LABOR” fraud anymore.

This worked for only a short while in the 9000 B.C. time and we got some assistance with the pyramids in EGYPT! If we do not allow those who are in the educational process to become more open minded to the ways of the entire world via the INTERNET CONNECTION in CYBERSPACE, we can figure on a long “30 YEAR WAR”. This is not good.

The 30 year will wipe out our young men once again. We need them all this time to become educated scientist in math and quantum algorithms of the old Muhammad but with the new Ascension Center Enlightenment of the Future in the Omniverse in Space. We are all learning that the universe is only one on branes in space. We must utilize our young men in space and all continents.

Now, Education will take on a new energy that must be availed.

We must all fight for peace and unity and where this takes us may very well be into the new world government. The Bilderbergs was once simply people who meet to share the “THINK TANK”. They met in the place for a reason. This control does exist but not as a conspiracy theory for real. It is not being paranoid. We have many such groups that desire to control the world through corporate entities. We must look at the intelligence scholars behind the meeting.

It was always the way of those in positions of power to meet and discuss the future for all.   However, the International Banking System is only one part. The corporations and the old money regime for control is now dealing with technology in space. The future of communication technology and the future in stock markets are viral. The future of prescription drugs for the future is also viral.

For where I put my future is in education and sustainability. I am asked how to make the future better for all. People ask me “What can I do”. The names are not important but the energy is! We are all important and what we produce in energy is now more important than ever. The way we progress together in our groups for our own survival and enlightenment is important. The Baha’I Faith you mention has found a way to rely on corporations and the way to vote and become a part of the future.

Regarding One World Government – Baha’I Faithers – Interfaith Future of Global Community You have brought up a wonderful topic. I am glad you did! Thank you.  Our future is in space. The control of the air space above earth is now more important than the control on land. How to survive with all religions is a part of their approach.

I too have looked into their structure. The structure is good however, I do not believe in all that their scriptures of one man give them. He came from a material world and wanted to change all of that into the spiritual world. The faith of the Baha’I is still on the same supremacy of unto God we will return. It is a GOD faith. I believe that women are equal to men in soul and spirit.

We come from a Supreme Entity of both God and Goddess. I am just now getting into the structuring of the Baha’I with both male and female entities and how they plan to control the future when it all remains in who has the power in space.

We know that those above who control the extraterrestrial spacecraft as UFOS and USOS are watching all through our own satellite equipment in space. We have access to all so they do too!

It does not take a rocket scientist to figure out that they are more intelligent and can remain hidden as long as they so desire.

The part that we are now contending with is how much will they share of themselves with us in the future and will they finally land on the White House lawn in 2012?The future of our world lies with the date of who takes office for the Supreme Power of the world as President for 2013! There is either your SAVIOR or your ANTI-CHRIST!

Now having said that, this will decide who controls the future in space and where the SUPER POWERS will control the world.

We are all about being in communication and making sure that we all have more than the basics as food, water, clothing, shelter, transportation, and money in the bank for travel and tourism.

All of this now is connected to our future gadgets and how we will all share our abundance as health and prosperity for all! Right now, we have to create infrastructure and reshape the future with each global tectonic plate. We have to be intelligent and learn for ourselves that the past has a lot to do with the global future of Pangaea. The past created the future here on earth! We have to look at where we have been in the past and how the world will be shaped based on the Continental Divides.

This is what we call the “Great Awakening” in spirit in the relation to global interfaith of religions. All religions are about cultures in the future! It is just like a movie from Star Trek. We are going to all be able to travel on the future “STAR SHIP ENTERPRISE!” This was part of the future nine (9) controls. We all know about the control of the NINE and that all power struggles come from this NATURE PSYCHE of the HUMANOID beings. Be they on earth, in space, or traveling from one place to the other in the future makes no difference. It is apparent we have come to far to turn back now. This is our future!

We are destined for space.

 We will learn how to profit here on earth and in space. The future on the moon and the future on Mars are two points we not aim for. Therefore, it is only natural for all nation states to want to be a part of the future in space. They want to know that we shall create those on earth who will sustain life on earth while those in space control the future!

Therefore, we should not fear change but embrace is as social entrepreneurs all over the world. We shall move forward with shaping our energy as synergy to assist all on earth maintain their basics of food, water, clothing, and shelter through what we create as the next future United Nations Force and one in CYBER SPACE! We are all meeting to discuss the control of air and space communications with an agreement of some control by all countries based on their continental location. Geography now comes into play not only by the five main continents but also by the continental shifts based on the location of the Continental divides of the tectonic plates.

On earth as it is in heave so to speak means that what we can see from the images of earth declassified as our maps from satellites. We now know where we must concentrate our energies and moving people away from the earthquake and volcanic zones. We must control the areas of population control based on moving them from the ignorant places we allowed people to form cities.

We now know that we must take to the continent levels where tsunamis and Super Tsunamis will not destroy islands. We are aware that the future will depend a lot on satellite images of our fight for space for global crops versus control of those we grow in space. The future SUPER POWERS are those that will be controlled from SPACE!

Therefore, look for your ONE WORLD GOVERNMENT from the future alliance for a place in SPACE! One will always take to space while the other goes deep underground for control. This is the way we did it in the past and the same way we will keep our species from being destroyed in the future. It is always about survival of the species and this means the survival of the fittest. We now have the 7 billion mark we are approaching. Nature will take care of those who do not listen to the changes one earth.

We can now track these cataclysms from space. Those countries that do not join us with our Internet Cyberspace Information Control will lose our allegiance. Therefore, all countries must learn to share in the future of the Tectonic Plate Energies that are controlled by Earth. Those above control Earth! Those who do not believe in those above as the Extraterrestrial Controls whom we have called “THE FORCE” and “God” in the past will soon learn that we can control our satellites and predictions to some extent but,

We cannot control:” Mother Nature”.

 One might as why not in the future? – It will come when one day we shall learn but for now, we must learn to control space around each other as one space species. We learn to become at peace with each other and learn to survive being full of good nature, health, and abundance for all, then we pass on into the next level after this one and take with us as memories what we have learned here. Those who know about the higher realms that deal with energy in space have the better paths to follow in the future in space.  We will all learn about areas of space we call dimensions and other layers of abundance in the metaverse, the xenoverse, and the Omniverse.

We should all learn to maintain our own order in structuring the chaos in our own energy  In addition, learning to share the peace and order for all in the future. It is about not only control factors but also knowledge factors.  We create trust for our own spiritual selves first.

Then we learn to work together and learn sustainability for all that are in our group or species. Then we learn to terra form other planets and create beings.  We then to become as those in the Omniverse who can maintain order in the universal chaos we now call space. Space-time is another adventure we learn of where we are in relation to the point of origin for each of our own soul connections.

The soul groups may be a part of the future. For now, we must learn to keep order and to be democratic and allow for voting in our chosen leaders according to the variety of energy that will lead us into the future!

The future is in space.

The Internet Connection to the World Wide Web is one of the most important commodities next to the basics of food, water, clothing, shelter, transportation, now comes communication.  Our jobs will all revolve around the clean sustainability for all creatures on this planet! Love and Light. TJ Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris, Author/Entrepreneur consultant, trainer in mystical experiences that include Extraterrestrials, & Ancient Civilizations.  Original Story on UFO Digest World Government: Good or Bad Thing
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