not for profit website magazines



Many people think that nonprofit means that the organization cannot make a profit. This is not true. In order to survive, nonprofit organizations must ensure that there is a surplus of revenues over expenses. We use the term nonprofit because these organizations are not set up for the sole purpose of making a profit. Rather, they pursue public benefit purposes that are recognized under federal and state law.


What makes an organization a nonprofit is that:


its mission is to undertake activities whose goal is not primarily for profit

no person owns shares of the corporation or interests in its property

the property and income of the nonprofit corporation are never distributed to any owners, but are recycled back into the nonprofit corporation’s public benefit mission and activities.



A nonprofit organization is, in a way, owned by the public. It belongs to no private person and no one person controls the organization.


The assets of a nonprofit are irrevocably dedicated to the charitable, educational, literary, scientific, or religious purposes of the organization.


The cash, equipment, and other property of a nonprofit cannot be given to anyone or used for anyone’s private benefit without fair market compensation to the nonprofit organization.


In fact, a nonprofit’s property is permanently dedicated to exempt purposes. When and if the organization dissolves, any remaining assets after debts and liabilities are satisfied, must go to another nonrofit organization…not to members of the former nonprofit or other private individual.




Control of a nonprofit is exercised by a governing board of directors or trustees. The responsibility of that board is to see that the organization fulfills its purpose. Board members do not act as individuals, but must act as a group.


No one can be guaranteed permanent tenure on a board, and the board can, if necessary, fire an executive or remove board members.


This means that no one, not even the founder of the organization, can control a nonprofit. In some states, such as California, there are rules governing the pay of directors of a nonprofit. Most boards of directors are not compensated, except for expenses such as travel to and from board meetings.




Nonprofit organizations are accountable to the public and must file annual information returns with the federal and state governments. The federal form that nonprofits must file is IRS Form 990. On it the nonprofit must report information regarding its finances, including the salaries of the five highest paid non-officer employees. IRS Form 990 must be made available to the public. Most nonprofits have them available at their headquarters and on the web. The tax forms are also easily obtained through certain websites such as


At the state level, nonprofits are usually overseen by the State’s Attorney General’s Office. That office usually has the power to take a nonprofit corporation to court to make sure it complies with the law.



Ten Dimensions
According to string theory, all of reality exists in (exactly) ten dimensions. There are four revealed dimensions (the three dimensions of space together with the fourth dimension of time) and an additional six concealed (spatial) dimensions.
In Kabbalah we are taught that God emanated from His infinite light (through the process of tzimtzum–the “contraction” of infinity) ten Divine lights or powers (sefirot) through which He created the universe. Each of these ten powers can be understood to be a “dimension” of reality. This is the ultimate reason that the Torah chooses the “perfect” number system to be the decimal system (as is said in the Torah: “The tenth shall be holy for God”).
All ten dimensions are seen to be contained within the “point-string” (in the idiom of Chassidut, “a formed point” [in contrast to “an unformed point”], whose form resembles a tiny “string”) of the letter yud = 10. The letter yud is the first letter of God’s essential Name Havayah (whose full value equals 26, the sole other possible number of dimensions of the universe according to string theory). Ascension Masters of the Ascension Avatar Realm.
The full spelling of the letter yud is: yud (10), vav (6), and dalet (4). The two additional letters, the vav (6) and the dalet (4) themselves equal the original yud (10). The full spelling of the yud is thus to be understood as an equation: 10 = 6 plus 4. The 10 dimensions of reality divide into two categories, one of 6 and the other of 4.
In Kabbalah, the vav (6) is considered the “male” element of reality whereas the dalet (4) is considered the “female” element. The “female” principle of reality is “revelation” whereas the “male” principle is concealed within the “female.” So is the relation, according to string theory, of the 6 concealed dimensions of reality to the 4 revealed dimensions.
The 6 (which “precede” the four) are in fact: 1 plus 2 plus 3. And so, 10 = 1 plus 2 plus 3 plus 4. In the terminology of Kabbalah these four stages of the Divine “evolution” of reality are referred to as: “the simple song” (1); “the double song” (2); “the triple song” (3); “the quadruple song” (4).
In the soul of man (who is “a miniature universe”), the first three concealed stages (1 plus 2 plus 3 = 6) correspond to: the power of superconscious will (1, “the simple song”); the two intellectual powers of the mind (wisdom and understanding–2, “the double song”); the three emotive powers of the heart (love, fear and mercy–3, “the triple song”). These stages are “concealed,” for they are as yet unexpressed to the “other.”
The fourth stage is that of the 4 “revealed” powers of the soul, which express themselves in one’s actions (and words) or patterns of behavior (conviction, commitment, devotion, speech–4, “the quadruple song.” The first three of these are dimensions of “space”: up-down; right-left; front-back respectively. The last is the dimension of “time”).
This model of 10 = the “triangle” of 4 (= 1 plus 2 plus 3 plus 4) is referred to as the “evolutionary” model of reality.
The evolutionary model of reality is subsequently transformed into the “psychic” model of 3 triplets (of “right,” “left” and “middle”) plus 1: 10 = 3 squared 2 plus 1 (= 1 squared). This model, in contrast to the previous model, is relatively “mature.” Here, the superconscious will–the “1” of the evolutionary model–becomes revealed as conscious “knowledge”–the third, middle element of the first of the 3 triplets–thereby maturing the mental powers of the soul from 2 to 3. The three mental powers then connect to the three emotive powers, which in turn connect to the three “behavioral” (“spatial”) powers to equal 3 squared. The fourth, revealed dimension of time thus becomes the unique consciousness of 1 = 1 squared.
The psychic model of reality is subsequently transformed into the “Divine” model of 10 = 2 times 5 (the two prime factors of 10) = (1 squared plus 2 squared) plus (1 squared plus 2 squared). This is the model of the Ten Commandments–five on each of the two tablets of the covenant. Similarly, with regard to the Divine image imprinted on the body of man, ten fingers (or “toes”) of the two hands (or two feet), the thumb = 1 squared and the remaining four fingers = 2 squared.
This final model of 10 is considered the model of “Divine Inspiration,” for here the four physical dimensions of space and time become “inspired” with consciousness of a “fifth” dimension above them and present within their midst. This is the dimension that corresponds to the third of the three emotive powers of the heart, the power of mercy (or empathy). The consciousness of Divine mercy permeating all of physical reality causes the dimensions of space and time to blend together as an awareness of freely “traveling” in time. In the soul, this reflects the consummate unity of “devotion” (drive) and expression.
Just as the five lower powers (dimensions) of the soul unite to become one, so do the five higher powers. The five lower powers, now the five revealed dimensions of reality, perfectly reflect the five higher, concealed powers. The five higher powers are only concealed in relation to “outer” reality. In relation to the “inner” reality of mind and heart, these as well (in addition to the five lower powers) become revealed.
The mental power of “knowledge” elevates to unite with the source of simple faith–the ultimate “head” of the superconscious, which now becomes revealed to the inner consciousness of the soul. This dimension corresponds to the “concealed” 1 squared. The four powers (dimensions) of wisdom (the “right” power of the mind), understanding (the “left” power of the mind), love (the “right” power of the heart), fear (the “left” power of the heart) corresponds to the “concealed” 2 squared.
The String
Kabbalah teaches that the ten dimensions of reality were initially created in potentia by means of the “contraction” of God’s infinite light, thereby resulting in the appearance of an “empty space” or “black hole” of “potential” being. Into this primordial “vacuum” enters a “ray” of Divine light, referred to as the “line” or “string.” The primordial string “actualizes” the ten manifest dimensions of reality and continues to emanate within them the worlds of creation.
The initial revelation within the primordial vacuum is the revelation of light. In the words of the third verse of Genesis (the first explicit “saying” of creation): “And God said ‘Let there be light,’ and there was light.” This primordial light refers to the Divine ray of light that permeates the vacuum, the Divine “string.”
In Hebrew, the numerical value of the word for “string” (chut) is 23. 23 is the tenth prime number (beginning from 1). The value of “light” (or) is 207. 207 = 9 times 23. This indicates that every “photon” of the primordial light is in fact composed of a nine-fold string.
In Kabbalah we are taught that one of the primary functions of the primordial string is to “measure.” Each “unit” of measure is in fact an individual string. From one initial string become emanated a multitude of strings which fill space. These strings “fold” in and out, “split” into two and our “reunited” into one. These stages most precisely reflect the imagery and terminology of modern string theory.
The “folding” process relates to the initial “world” which enclothes the ray of Divine light, known in Kabbalah as “Primordial Man.” The “splitting” process relates to the subsequent “world of chaos,” which split apart and broke. The “reuniting” process relates to the subsequent “world of rectification.”
In the “world of rectification,” the tiny “reunited” string segments give rise to full-fledged “particles” or “sparks.” Each particle is in fact a “full” or “rectified” “stature,” which is able to reflect the presence of its Creator.
The numerical value of the word for “particle” or “spark” (nitzotz) is 236. This is the number that our Sages (in the Midrash) identify as the “measure” of Divine “stature.”
The consummate “union” of the two concepts of “string” and “particle” is represented in Kabbalah as the product of their two numerical values: 23 times 236 = 5428. The number 5428 is the sum of the five “whole number interactions” between the two numbers 6 and 4:
6 minus 4 = 2
6 plus 4 = 10
6 times 4 = 24
6 to the 4th = 1296
4 to the 6th = 4096
2 plus 10 plus 24 plus 1296 plus 4096 = 5428
(The fact that every pair of numbers gives rise to five “whole number interactions” reflects the “Divinely inspired” representation of the number 10. 10 = 2 times 5).
In the Torah, the mitzvah (“commandment,” from the Hebrew root which means “to connect”) which explicitly relates to “strings” is the mitzvah of tzitzit. The mitzvah of tzitzit requires that a four-cornered garment possess four strings bound to each of its corners. The four strings are folded over to produce the effect of eight strings hanging from each corner. These eight strings are bound together by 5 double knots: 2 times 5 = 10.
The purpose of the mitzvah of tzitzit, explicitly stated in the Torah, is to remind us of all the 613 mitzvot of the Torah. The mitzvah of tzitzit, is therefore considered to “weigh against” (“balance”) all of the 613.
In “small number calculation” (reduction of each letter to equal 1-9), the word tzitzit (as written if the Torah) = 23 (the value of “string”).
According to the Torah, there are two colors to the strings of the tzitzit, white and blue. In “small number calculation,” the word for “white” (lavan) = 10. The word for “blue” (techailet) = 13. 10 plus 13 = 23 (the value of tzitzit and the value of “string”). As 23 is the tenth prime number (as mentioned above), this alludes to the fact (explained in Kabbalah and reflected in nature) that the “blue” of the tzitzit is rooted and contained within the “white.”
The full value of “white” (lavan = 82) and “blue” (techailet = 850) is 932. This is the value of “the Tree of Knowledge of good and evil” (etz hada’at tov v’rah), as to be mentioned.
The two colors of the tzitzit represent the ability of the string to split into two and reunite as one. The word for “one” in Hebrew, echad, is composed of three letters whose numerical values are 1, 8, 4 (which together = 13). The “evolving” form of “one”: (1) plus (1 plus 8) plus (1 plus 8 plus 4) = 23. This phenomenon indicates the power which inheres in the string (= 23) to unite reality.
Would we meditate deeper upon the multitude of laws and exact manner of binding the strings of the tzitzit, we would most certainly discover and clarify many of the deepest secrets of the universe.
Four Forces from One
The ratio 1:4 (“one to four” or “one becoming four”) is one of the pillars of creation as revealed in the beginning of the Torah. We will here observe four phenomena from Genesis based upon the ratio 1:4.
The two letters alef (= 1) and dalet (= 4) form together the word for “vapor.” In the beginning of creation, the “vapor” rose from the earth to moisten the earth for the sake of the creation of man.
One river flows from Eden to the garden, which thereafter, leaving the garden, divides into the four great rivers of the earth.
“The Tree of Life” (etz ha’chaim) = 233. “The Tree of Knowledge of good and evil” (etz hada’at tov v’rah) = 932. 932 = 4 times 233. Thus the ratio of the two trees is “one to four” (the “one” being the Tree of Life and the resulting “four” being the Tree of Knowledge of good and evil).
The word “good” (tov, the positive force of the Tree of Knowledge of good and evil) = 17. The word “life” (chaim, of the Tree of Life) = 68. 17:68 = 1:4. The word for “life” possesses four letters. The average value of each of its letters is “good.” Thus we see that the fundamental force of “life” (of the Tree of Life) is in fact the positive force of “good” (inherent in the Tree of Knowledge of good and evil). The two trees thus create an infinite cycle of Divine energy.
To conclude, the most obvious phenomenon in the Torah related to the four forces of nature deriving from one, is that God’s essential Name Havayah is composed of four letters. “God is One.” In the future it will become revealed that “God is One and His Name is One.” “His Name” refers to the four letters of Havayah. This is the ultimate revelation of the Divine “unified field theory.”
“The material contained on this page is copyright by Gal Einai Institute, a US non-profit organization dedicated to publishing the teachings of Harav Yitzchak Ginsburgh and the Ascension Center, a div. of ACE Metaphysical Institute, A US non-profit organization dedicated to the publishing of the teachings of Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris. The written material on this page may be used on other websites, provided that credit and a link back to this page are clearly displayed. (c) 1996-2011 Gal Einai Institute, Inc. and (c) 1990-2012 TJ Morris tm ACIR sm ACO Corp, ACE Metaphysical Institute.
Home / Beginner Level Kabbalah / An Overview of the Kabbalistic Tradition – Introduction
An Overview of the Kabbalistic Tradition – Introduction
At the moment when Israel stood at the foot of Mount Sinai, the heavens parted and the spirit of G-d descended from on high amidst thunder and lightning fire. In revealing Himself to the entire community of Israel, God in essence laid bare the hidden core of Kabbalistic truth which up to that point had been the privilege of a select few.
According to Kabbalistic tradition, the purpose of Creation is to provide God with a “dwelling place in the lower realms,” a goal which achieves fulfillment through the channeling of Divine light into the progressively denser “vessels” of human thought, feeling, and deed, and from there into the rest of material reality.

The Kabbalah’s attempt at bringing the mysteries of Creation into closer proximity of man’s own experience has expressed itself perhaps most radically through the vehicle of Chassidic thought and tradition.

Chassidut advanced the focus of the mystical tradition beyond the realm of olamot (“worlds,” the reality of space and time) into the sublimer realm of neshamot (“souls”).

Hence, while Kabbalah is referred to in the Zohar as the “soul of the Torah,” Chassidut has been coined the “soul of the soul of the Torah.”
“The material contained on this page is copyright by Gal Einai Institute, a US non-profit organization dedicated to publishing the teachings of Harav Yitzchak Ginsburgh
The written material on this page may be used on other websites, provided that credit and a link back to this page are clearly displayed. (c) 1996-2011 Gal Einai Institute, Inc. SOURCE:
TJ Project known as Ascension Center of the Ascension Age begins the New concept of Time called Infinity Squared in the Eleventh Dimension are copyrighted by the ACE Metaphysical Institute, a US non-profit Organization dedicated to publishing the teachings of Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris.
In order to begin we need a point of origin that in the three dimensional world we call a 0 or dot.
When we are in the length-width-depth three dimension we have been placed in by our ancestors we can then add the fourth dimension we call TIME.
Time as we know it is the FOURTH DIMENSION.
We can then add the FIFTH DIMENSION which is the next place in time that may or may not be the same as a parallel universe.
However, We can know that the SIXTH DIMENSION is the next place in time and space that we came to see another place that may or may not be another point and place in the space-time universes we call multiverses.
The Metaverse is that place which is above and stacked above the Sixth dimension and we can oversee ourselves in the fifth dimension as we look back at a place in space we call space-time where we allowed ourselves to ben time from a straight line into the circle of time through a worm hole.
We can do this in the fifth through the tenth dimensions.
We allow for all ten dimensions to exist or duplicate all possible places on our time line as we do in the tenth dimension of one through nine as points of origin as in taking the fifth dimension as the mirror image of our length-width-depth, and add above and below and all other places in space that we can draw a navigational line too from our point in space we call time as the fourth dimension.
This gives us length, depth, width, time in space, above, and below as sixth places in space or in the metaverse.
Take Seventh Dimension as all possible places to exist we call infinity. The infinity lines go forever in any direction in our various metaverse and becomes known as that which exist which includes, the universe, multiverse, metaverse, xenoverse, omniverse, Alphaverse, and Omegaverse.
Now if we combine our Co-creators of the AlphaMales and the Omegafemales and multiply all that is with the infinity we can share our future as infinity squared which is the mirror image of all that exists inside the mirror image reflecting back on its own self as the eleventh dimension.
Infinity squared includes all that we can see forever and ever as infinity squared as the mirror image of ourselves and our worlds we have created inside the all which is the beginning of all creators, and all time as we know it to exist. The places to dwell with our own existence in a hierarchy of all that is and al l that has been before we came into being.
The places we create to exist in the future of our minds is all that we leave in the mirror of our minds that we take with us to be future creators of the all. Copyright owned of this truth of concept is the creator Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris with the divine authority as TJ of Ascension on this day of our Lord May 30, 2012.

2012 People Helping People in the Ascension Age

• We in the new Ascension Age are learning the ways of communication of cosmology and etymology and ethnology while attempting to learn what sustainability of our planet and species entails.
• We share what we are all working towards as a Global Brain Consciousness in the world.
• We are now working with TJ Morris and Ascension Center Network together with the Ascension Center Organization Project on the Internet in cyberspace.
• We shall share the various levels of reality in this world and cyberspace virtual world, in space, and the Akashic field.
• We work with Theoretical Physicists, and Metaphysical Science Researchers.
• We work with Spiritual Guides and Spiritual Intellectuals including those who are interested in the history and mysteries of the Ancient Astronaut Theory.
• We share the movie and entertainment interests and our forever growing interests of our cultural heritage in not only maintaining our needs as food, clothing, shelter, and family traditions, but our cultural traditions as well.
• We share in the self-guided teach yourself role of the internet with TJ Morris & Friends that are in the ACE Folklife Club.
This is a private club which is part of the Ascension Center Organization of TJ Morris Publishing Network on the Internet. We for now are offering it as open source and later shall add the various levels in our basic packages for ACE METAPHYSICAL INSTITUTE with Janet Lessin and Janette Morris as TJ.
We meet at various events and share our symposiums such as expos and the Whole Life Expos in Canada and in the United States.
We also share other travel industry and tourism expos and special events. We are organizers. We are also mediators, and social entrepreneurs.
We are authors of our own life stories and share the support of all art, culture, education.
This article may contain original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding references. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. More details may be available on the free encyclopedia in Wikipedia talk page since we have been working together on this definition since October 2008.
The Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. Almost every speck of light in this image is an entire galaxy. This is just a small region of a Universe which could contain as many as 200 billion galaxies.
Cosmology is the discipline that deals with the nature of the Universe as a whole.
Cosmologists seek to understand the origin, evolution, structure, and ultimate fate of the Universe at large, as well as the natural laws that keep it in order.
Modern cosmology is dominated by the Big Bang theory, which brings together observational astronomy and particle physics.
Though the word cosmology is recent (first used in 1730 in Christian Wolff’s Cosmologia Generalis), the study of the universe has a long history involving science, philosophy, esotericism, metaphysics, and religion. Related studies include cosmogony, which focuses on the origin of the Universe, and cosmography, which maps the features of the Universe. Cosmology is also connected to astronomy. However, they are contrasted in that while the former is concerned with the Universe in its entirety, the latter deals with individual celestial objects.
In recent times, physics and astrophysics have played a central role in shaping the understanding of the universe through scientific observation and experiment. What is known as physical cosmology shaped through both mathematics and observation the analysis of the whole universe. It is generally understood to begin with the Big Bang, followed almost instantaneously by cosmic inflation – an expansion of space from which the universe is thought to have emerged ~13.7±0.2×109 (roughly 13.5–13.9 billion) years ago.
Physical cosmologists propose that the history of the universe has been governed entirely by physical laws. Such theories of an impersonal universe governed by physical laws were first proposed by Roger Bacon.
Between the domains of religion and science stands the philosophical perspective of metaphysical cosmology. This ancient field of study seeks to draw intuitive conclusions about the nature of the universe, man, a supernatural creator, and/or their relationships based on the extension of some set of presumed facts borrowed from spiritual experience and/or observation.
Metaphysical cosmology has also been described as the placing of man in the universe in relationship to all other entities. This is exemplified by the observation made by Marcus Aurelius of a man’s place in that relationship: “He who does not know what the world is does not know where he is, and he who does not know for what purpose the world exists, does not know who he is, nor what the world is.”
Cosmology is often an important aspect of the creation myths of religions that seek to explain the existence and nature of reality. In some cases, views about the creation (cosmogony) and destruction (eschatology) of the universe play a central role in shaping a framework of religious cosmology for understanding humanity’s role in the universe.
A more contemporary distinction between religion and philosophy, esoteric cosmology is distinguished from religion in its less tradition-bound construction and reliance on modern “intellectual understanding” rather than faith, and from philosophy in its emphasis on spirituality as a formative concept.
Historical cosmologies
Further information: Timeline of cosmology
Name Author and date Classification Remarks
Brahmanda (Hindu Cosmology) Hindu Rigveda (unknown BC) Cyclical or oscillating, Infinite in time
Babylonian cosmology Babylonian literature and Old Testament (3000–500 BC) Flat earth floating in infinite “waters of chaos” The Earth and the Heavens form a unit within infinite “waters of chaos”; the earth is flat and circular, and a solid dome (the “firmament”) keeps out the outer “chaos”-ocean.
Atomist universe Anaxagoras (500–428 BC) & later Epicurus Infinite in extent the universe contains only two things: an infinite number of tiny seeds, or atoms, and the void of infinite extent. All atoms are made of the same substance, but differ in size and shape. Objects are formed from atom aggregations and decay back into atoms. Incorporates Leucippus’ principle of causality: “nothing happens at random; everything happens out of reason and necessity.” The universe was not ruled by gods.
Pythagorean universe Philolaus (d. 390 BC) Existence of a “Central Fire” at the center of the Universe. At the center of the Universe is a central fire, around which the Earth, Sun, Moon and planets revolve uniformly. The Sun revolves around the central fire once a year, the stars are immobile. The earth in its motion maintains the same hidden face towards the central fire, hence it is never seen. This is the first known non-geocentric model of the Universe.
Stoic universe Stoics (300 BC – 200 AD) Island universe the cosmos is finite and surrounded by an infinite void. It is in a state of flux, as it pulsates in size and periodically passes through upheavals and conflagrations.
Aristotelian universe Aristotle (384–322 BC) Geocentric, static, steady state, finite extent, infinite time Spherical earth is surrounded by concentric celestial spheres. Universe exists unchanged throughout eternity. Contains a fifth element, called aether (later known as quintessence), and added to the four Classical elements.
Aristarchean universe Aristarchus (circa 280 BC) Heliocentric Earth rotates daily on its axis and revolves annually about the sun in a circular orbit. Sphere of fixed stars is centered about the sun.
Ptolemaic model (based on Aristotelian universe) Ptolemy (2nd century AD) Geocentric Universe orbits about a stationary Earth. Planets move in circular epicycles, each having a center that moved in a larger circular orbit (called an eccentric or a deferent) around a center-point near the Earth. The use of equants added another level of complexity and allowed astronomers to predict the positions of the planets. The most successful universe model of all time, using the criterion of longevity. Almagest (the Great System).
Aryabhatan model Aryabhata (499) Geocentric or Heliocentric The Earth rotates and the planets move in elliptical orbits, possibly around either the Earth or the Sun. It is uncertain whether the model is geocentric or heliocentric due to planetary orbits given with respect to both the Earth and the Sun.
Medieval universe Medieval philosophers (500–1200) Finite in time A universe that is finite in time and has a beginning is proposed by the Christian philosopher, John Philoponus, who argues against the ancient Greek notion of an infinite past. Logical arguments supporting a finite universe are developed by the early Muslim philosopher Alkindus, the Jewish philosopher Saadia Gaon and the Muslim theologian Algazel.
Multiversal cosmology Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209) Multiverse, multiple worlds & universes There exists an infinite outer space beyond the known world, and God has the power to fill the vacuum with an infinite number of universes.
Maragha models Maragha school (1259–1528) Geocentric various modifications to Ptolemaic model and Aristotelian universe, including rejection of equant and eccentrics at Maragheh observatory, and introduction of Tusi-couple by Al-Tusi. Alternative models later proposed, including the first accurate lunar model by In al-Shatir, a model rejecting stationary Earth in favor of Earth’s rotation by Ali Kuşçu, and planetary model incorporating “circular inertia” by Al-Birjandi.
Nilakanthan model Nilakantha Somayaji (1444–1544) Geocentric and Heliocentric A universe in which the planets orbit the Sun and the Sun orbits the Earth, similar to the later Tychonic system.
Copernican universe Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) Heliocentric with circular planetary orbits first clearly described heliocentric model, in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium.
Tychonic system Tycho Brahe (1546–1601) Geocentric and Heliocentric A universe in which the planets orbit the Sun and the Sun orbits the Earth, similar to the earlier Nilakanthan model.
Keplerian Johann Kepler (1571–1630) Heliocentric with elliptical planetary orbits Kepler’s discoveries, marrying mathematics and physics, provided the foundation for our present conception of the Solar system, but distant stars were still seen as objects in a thin, fixed celestial sphere.
Static Newtonian Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727) Static (evolving), steady state, infinite every particle in the universe attracts every other particle. Matter on the large scale is uniformly distributed. Gravitationally balanced but unstable.
Cartesian Vortex universe René Descartes
17th century
Static (evolving), steady state, infinite A system of huge swirling whirlpools of aethereal or fine matter produces what we would call gravitational effects. His vacuum was not empty. All space was filled with matter that swirled around in large and small vortices.
Hierarchical universe Immanuel Kant, Johann Lambert 18th century Static (evolving), steady state, infinite Matter is clustered on ever larger scales of hierarchy. Matter is endlessly being recycled.
Einstein Universe with a cosmological constant Albert Einstein 1917 Static (nominally). Bounded (finite) “Matter without motion.” Contains uniformly distributed matter. Uniformly curved spherical space; based on Riemann’s hypersphere. Curvature is set equal to Λ. In effect Λ is equivalent to a repulsive force which counteracts gravity. Unstable.
De Sitter universe Willem de Sitter 1917 Expanding flat space.
Steady state. Λ > 0
“Motion without matter.” Only apparently static. Based on Einstein’s General Relativity. Space expands with constant acceleration. Scale factor (radius of universe) increases exponentially, i.e. constant inflation.
MacMillan universe William Duncan MacMillan 1920s Static &
steady state
New matter is created from radiation. Starlight is perpetually recycled into new matter particles.
Friedmann universe of spherical space Alexander Friedmann 1922 Spherical expanding space.
k= +1 ; no Λ
Positive curvature. Curvature constant k = +1
Expands then recollapses. Spatially closed (finite).
Friedmann universe of hyperbolic space Alexander Friedmann 1924 Hyperbolic expanding space.
k= -1 ; no Λ
Negative curvature. Said to be infinite (but ambiguous). Unbounded. Expands forever.
Dirac large numbers hypothesis Paul Dirac 1930s Expanding Demands a large variation in G, which decreases with time. Gravity weakens as universe evolves.
Friedmann zero-curvature, a.k.a. the Einstein-DeSitter universe Einstein & DeSitter 1932 Expanding flat space.
k= 0 ; Λ = 0 Critical density
Curvature constant k = 0. Said to be infinite (but ambiguous). ‘Unbounded cosmos of limited extent.’ Expands forever. ‘Simplest’ of all known universes. Named after but not considered by Friedmann. Has a deceleration term q =½ which means that its expansion rate slows down.
The original Big Bang. a.k.a. Friedmann-Lemaître Model Georges Lemaître 1927–29 Expansion
Λ > 0 Λ > |Gravity|
Λ is positive and has a magnitude greater than Gravity. Universe has initial high density state (‘primeval atom’). Followed by a two stage expansion. Λ is used to destabilize the universe. (Lemaître is considered to be the father of the big bang model.)
Oscillating universe
(a.k.a. Friedmann-Einstein; was latter’s 1st choice after rejecting his own 1917 model)
Favored by Friedmann
Expanding and contracting in cycles Time is endless and beginningless; thus avoids the beginning-of-time paradox. Perpetual cycles of big bang followed by big crunch.
Eddington Arthur Eddington 1930 First Static
then Expands
Static Einstein 1917 universe with its instability disturbed into expansion mode; with relentless matter dilution becomes a DeSitter universe. Λ dominates gravity.
Milne universe of kinematic relativity Edward Milne, 1933, 1935;
William H. McCrea, 1930s
Kinematic expansion with NO space expansion Rejects general relativity and the expanding space paradigm. Gravity not included as initial assumption. Obeys cosmological principle & rules of special relativity. The Milne expanding universe consists of a finite spherical cloud of particles (or galaxies) that expands WITHIN flat space which is infinite and otherwise empty. It has a center and a cosmic edge (the surface of the particle cloud) which expands at light speed. His explanation of gravity was elaborate and unconvincing. For instance, his universe has an infinite number of particles, hence infinite mass, within a finite cosmic volume.
Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker class of models Howard Robertson, Arthur Walker, 1935 Uniformly expanding Class of universes that are homogenous and isotropic. Spacetime separates into uniformly curved space and cosmic time common to all comoving observers. The formulation system is now known as the FLRW or Robertson-Walker metrics of cosmic time and curved space.
Steady-state expanding (Bondi & Gold) Herman Bondi, Thomas Gold 1948 Expanding, steady state, infinite Matter creation rate maintains constant density. Continuous creation out of nothing from nowhere. Exponential expansion. Deceleration term q = -1.
Steady-state expanding (Hoyle) Fred Hoyle 1948 Expanding, steady state; but unstable Matter creation rate maintains constant density. But since matter creation rate must be exactly balanced with the space expansion rate the system is unstable.
Ambiplasma Hannes Alfvén 1965 Oskar Klein Cellular universe, expanding by means of matter-antimatter annihilation Based on the concept of plasma cosmology. The universe is viewed as meta-galaxies divided by double layers —hence its bubble-like nature. Other universes are formed from other bubbles. Ongoing cosmic matter-antimatter annihilations keep the bubbles separated and moving apart preventing them from interacting.
Brans-Dicke Carl H. Brans; Robert H. Dicke Expanding Based on Mach’s principle. G varies with time as universe expands. “But nobody is quite sure what Mach’s principle actually means.”[citation needed]
Cosmic inflation Alan Guth 1980 Big Bang with modification to solve horizon problem and flatness problem. Based on the concept of hot inflation. The universe is viewed as a multiple quantum flux —hence its bubble-like nature. Other universes are formed from other bubbles. Ongoing cosmic expansion kept the bubbles separated and moving apart preventing them from interacting.
Eternal Inflation (a multiple universe model) Andreï Linde 1983 Big Bang with cosmic inflation A multiverse, based on the concept of cold inflation, in which inflationary events occur at random each with independent initial conditions; some expand into bubble universes supposedly like our entire cosmos. Bubbles nucleate in a spacetime foam.
Cyclic model Paul Steinhardt; Neil Turok 2002 Expanding and contracting in cycles; M theory. Two parallel orbifold planes or M-branes collide periodically in a higher dimensional space. With quintessence or dark energy
Cyclic model Lauris Baum;Paul Frampton 2007 Solution of Tolman’s entropy problem Phantom dark energy fragments universe into large number of disconnected patches. Our patch contracts containing only dark energy with zero entropy.
Table notes: the term “static” simply means not expanding and not contracting. Symbol G represents Newton’s gravitational constant; Λ (Lambda) is the cosmological constant.
Physical cosmology
Main article: Physical cosmology
Physical cosmology is the branch of physics and astrophysics that deals with the study of the physical origins and evolution of the Universe. It also includes the study of the nature of the Universe on its very largest scales. In its earliest form it was what is now known as celestial mechanics, the study of the heavens. The Greek philosophers Aristarchus of Samos, Aristotle and Ptolemy proposed different cosmological theories. In particular, the geocentric Ptolemaic system was the accepted theory to explain the motion of the heavens until Nicolaus Copernicus, and subsequently Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei proposed a heliocentric system in the 16th century. This is known as one of the most famous examples of epistemological rupture in physical cosmology.
With Isaac Newton and the 1687 publication of Principia Mathematica, the problem of the motion of the heavens was finally solved. Newton provided a physical mechanism for Kepler’s laws and his law of universal gravitation allowed the anomalies in previous systems, caused by gravitational interaction between the planets, to be resolved. A fundamental difference between Newton’s cosmology and those preceding it was the Copernican principle that the bodies on earth obey the same physical laws as all the celestial bodies. This was a crucial philosophical advance in physical cosmology.
Modern scientific cosmology is usually considered to have begun in 1917 with Albert Einstein’s publication of his final modification of general relativity in the paper “Cosmological Considerations of the General Theory of Relativity,” (although this paper was not widely available outside of Germany until the end of World War I). General relativity prompted cosmogonists such as Willem de Sitter, Karl Schwarzschild and Arthur Eddington to explore the astronomical consequences of the theory, which enhanced the growing ability of astronomers to study very distant objects. Prior to this (and for some time afterwards), physicists assumed that the Universe was static and unchanging.
In parallel to this dynamic approach to cosmology, one long-standing debate about the structure of the cosmos was coming to a climax. Mount Wilson astronomer Harlow Shapley championed the model of a cosmos made up of the Milky Way star system only ; while Heber D. Curtis argued for the idea that spiral nebulae were star systems in their own right – island universes. This difference of ideas came to a climax with the organization of the Great Debate at the meeting of the (US) National Academy of Sciences in Washington on 26 April 1920. The resolution of this debate came with the detection of novae in the Andromeda galaxy by Edwin Hubble in 1923 and 1924. Their distance established spiral nebulae well beyond the edge of the Milky Way and has galaxies of their own.
Subsequent modeling of the universe explored the possibility that the cosmological constant introduced by Einstein in his 1917 paper may result in an expanding universe, depending on its value.
Thus the big bang model was proposed by the Belgian priest Georges Lemaître in 1927 which was subsequently corroborated by Edwin Hubble’s discovery of the red shift in 1929 and later by the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation by Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson in 1964.
These findings were a first step to rule out some of many alternative physical cosmologies.
Recent observations made by the COBE and WMAP satellites observing this background radiation have effectively, in many scientists’ eyes, transformed cosmology from a highly speculative science into a predictive science, as these observations matched predictions made by a theory called Cosmic inflation, which is a modification of the standard big bang model. This has led many to refer to modern times as the “Golden age of cosmology.”
Metaphysical cosmology
See also: Religious cosmology
In philosophy and metaphysics, cosmology deals with the world as the totality of space, time and all phenomena. Historically, it has had quite a broad scope, and in many cases was founded in religion. The ancient Greeks did not draw a distinction between this use and their model for the cosmos. However, in modern use it addresses questions about the Universe which are beyond the scope of science. It is distinguished from religious cosmology in that it approaches these questions using philosophical methods (e.g. dialectics). Modern metaphysical cosmology tries to address questions such as:
What is the origin of the Universe? What is its first cause? Is its existence necessary? (see monism, pantheism, emanationism and creationism)
What are the ultimate material components of the Universe? (see mechanism, dynamism, hylomorphism, atomism)
What is the ultimate reason for the existence of the Universe? Does the cosmos have a purpose? (see teleology)
Does the existence of consciousness have a purpose? How do we know what we know about the totality of the cosmos? Does cosmological reasoning reveal metaphysical truths? (see epistemology)
See also
Astronomy portal
Absolute time and space
List of astrophysicists
Non-standard cosmology
Taiji (philosophy)
^ Spergel; Verde; Peiris; Komatsu; Nolta; Bennett; Halpern; Hinshaw et al (2003). “First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations”. arXiv:astro-ph/0302209 [astro-ph].
^ “The thoughts of Marcus Aurelius Antonius viii. 52”.
^ Boyer, C. A History of Mathematics. Wiley, p. 54.
^ Alan Guth is reported to have made this very claim in an Edge Foundation interview EDGE
Cronin, Vincent, The View from Planet Earth: Man Looks at the Cosmos, New York: William Morrow & Company, Inc., 1981, ISBN 0-688-00642-6
Jean-Marc Rouvière, Brèves méditations sur la création du monde, L’Harmattan, Paris 2006.
Roos, Matts Introduction to Cosmology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester: 2003.
Hawley, John F. & Katerine A. Holcomb Foundations of Modern Cosmology. Oxford University Press, Oxford: 1998.
Hetherington, Norriss S. Cosmology: Historical, Literary, Philosophical, Religious, and Scientific Perspectives. Garland Publishing, New York: 1993.
Long, Barry. The Origins of Man and the Universe ISBN 0-9508050-6-8
Martinus Thomsen’s The Third Testament is about the explanation of life, everything inside it and the reason (or origin) of it.
Arthur Koestler’s The Sleepwalkers (1959) provides a scholarly study of the history of cosmology from the Chaldeans to Kepler.
Schechner, Sara J. Comets, Popular Culture, and the Birth of Modern Cosmology. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 1997.
Weinberg, Steven, 1992. Dreams of a Final Theory (Pantheon Books, NY) ISBN 0-679-41923-3 – non-technical book.
Weinberg, Steven, 2008, Cosmology (Oxford University Press) ISBN 0198526822 – theoretical textbook.
External links
Look up cosmology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Cosmic Journey: A History of Scientific Cosmology from the American Institute of Physics
Project Cosmology A schematic for the cosmos (3D, interactive unification of scientific schematics)
Introduction to Cosmology David Lyth’s lectures from the ICTP Summer School in High Energy Physics and Cosmology
The Sophia Centre
The Sophia Centre for the Study of Cosmology in Culture, University of Wales Trinity Saint David
The Genesis cosmic chemistry module